A "special Government employee" (or "SGE") is an officer or employee in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government who is appointed to perform important, but limited, services to the Government, with or without compensation, for a period not to exceed 130 days during any period of 365 consecutive days. This status is important because the ethics rules apply differently to individuals who qualify as SGEs versus other Federal employees and officials.
More information on the ethics requirements for SGEs is available in the Department of the Interior's
You may also want to take a look at the new animated video, Ethics Rules for Federal Advisory Committee Members, that our ethics colleagues at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently released. (It is less than five minutes long!)