Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Interior Property Management Directives (IPMD) are issued only as needed to (a)supplement the Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR), and (b) to implement other property management policies and regulations of the Office of Management and Budget and the General Services Administration.
114-1.103-50 -- Personal Property Releases (PPR)
Personal Property Releases temporarily amend the IPMD. They may be issued when time is limited, or the information is not of a permanent nature, or is subject to frequent change.
Each PPR shall be numbered and those of a permanent nature shall be canceled when converted to a permanent directive.
114-1.104-50 -- Publication and distribution of IPMD
114-1.104-50.1 -- Publication
All IPMD and PPR issuances shall be published on loose leaf, white, or recycled paper, and transmitted as 410 DM Additions to the IPMD.
114-1.104-50.2 -- Distribution
All IPMD and PPR issuances shall receive the same distribution as FPMR amendments. Requests for a change in either the quantity or the address shall be forwarded to the Property Management in the Office of Acquisition and Property Management.
114-1.105-50 -- Authority for IPMD System
Interior Property Management Directives (IPMD) are prescribed by the Secretary under authority of 5 U.S.C. 301, 40 U.S.C. 486(c), 41 CFR 101-1.108, and other authorities specifically cited in the text.
114-1.106-50 -- Applicability of IPMD
The Interior Property Management Directives System applies to all bureaus and offices in the Department of the Interior unless otherwise indicated in the IPMD or specifically excluded by law.
114-1.109-50 -- Numbering in IPMD System
IPMD are issued in the same numerical sequence as the material covered in the FPMR except that the agency identification number is "114".
IPMD must be numbered "50" or higher to identify any part, subpart, or section that does not have a corresponding FPMR number.
Bureau directives may be identified by alphabetical designation immediately following the Department Code (114), as specified below:
114A - Office of the Secretary
114B - Office of Administrative Services
114C - National Biological Service
114D - Fish and Wildlife Service
114E - Bureau of Mines
114F - U.S. Geological Survey
114G - Minerals Management Service
114H - Bureau of Indian Affairs
114J - Bureau of Land Management
114K - National Park Service
114M - Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement
114N - Reserved
114P - Reserved
114R - Reserved
114S - Bureau of Reclamation
114T - Reserved
114U - Reserved
114W - Reserved
114Y - Office of Aircraft Services
114Z - Reserved
114-1.110 -- Deviation
Any deviation from the mandatory provisions of the FPMR and IPMD requires prior written approval. The head of each bureau and office may request such approval by submitting a detailed justification to the Office of Acquisition and Property Management.