The Indian Arts and Crafts Board, an agency located in the U.S. Department of the Interior, was created by Congress to promote the economic development of federally recognized American Indians and Alaska Natives through the expansion of the Indian arts and crafts market. A top priority of the IACB is the implementation and enforcement of the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, a truth-in-advertising law that provides criminal and civil penalties for marketing products as "Indian-made" when such products are not made by Indians, as defined by the Act.

The IACB's other activities include providing professional business advice, information on the Act and related marketing issues, fundraising assistance, and promotional opportunities to Native American artists, craftspeople, and cultural organizations of federally recognized Tribes. The IACB operates three regional museums, the Sioux Indian Museum, the Museum of the Plains Indian, and the Southern Plains Indian Museum. The IACB also produces a consumer directory of approximately 400 Native American owned and operated arts and crafts businesses.

These activities are not duplicated in either the federal or private sector. The Indian Arts and Crafts Board is the only federal agency that is consistently and exclusively concerned with the economic benefits and cultural development of federally recognized American Indian and Alaska Natives. The IACB's policies are determined by five commissioners who are appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, and serve without compensation. The IACB's activities and programs are carried out by a professional, experienced staff.