Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
For thousands of years, Alaska Natives harvest fish and wildlife resources.
Following the Alaska Purchase, the Federal government manages Alaska's fish and wildlife resources.
The Federal government transfers the authority to manage fish and wildlife in Alaska to the new State government.
Congress passes the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA), which conveys to Alaska Natives title to more than 40 million acres of land and nearly $ 1 billion in compensation. ANCSA also extinguishes aboriginal hunting and fishing rights. The Conference Committee report expresses the expectation that the Secretary of the Interior and the State of Alaska would take the action necessary to protect the subsistence needs of Alaska Natives.
State subsistence law creates a priority for subsistence use over all other uses of fish and wildlife, but does not define subsistence users.
Congress passes the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), which protects the subsistence needs of rural Alaskans.
The Alaska Board of Fisheries and Game adopts regulations creating a rural subsistence priority. The State program is in compliance with ANILCA.
The Alaska Supreme Court rules that the rural residency preference violates the Alaska Constitution.
The Federal government begins managing subsistence hunting, trapping and fishing on Alaska's Federal public lands and non-navigable waters.
The Federal government adopts final subsistence management regulations for Federal public lands.
Federal Regional Advisory Councils are established.
The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals rules that the Federal Subsistence Board should expand its management of subsistence fisheries to include all navigable waters in which the United States holds reserve water rights, such as waters on or next to wildlife refuges, national parks, and national forests. Congressional moratoriums prevent this ruling from taking effect until October 1, 1999.
Federal subsistence management expands to include fisheries on all Federal public lands and waters.
Secretary of the Interior announces comprehensive review of the Federal Subsistence Management Program.
Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture announce their decision to make a number of changes to the program.read more>>
Based on the review recommendations, the Secretaries of the Department of the Interior and Department of Agriculture issue a memorandum directing that the Federal Subsistence Board initiate several actions, including increasing the membership of the Federal Subsistence Board to include two public members representing rural subsistence users.
Two public members are appointed to the Federal Subsistence Board by the Secretaries. The Federal Subsistence Board adopts its Tribal consultation policy. The policy provides the framework for the Board's consultations with Federally recognized Tribes on ANILCA, Title VIII, subsistence matters under the Board's authority, while maintaining the central role of the Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Councils as advisors to the Board. The Board delayed development of an ANCSA corporation consultation policy, pending the release of the Department of the Interior's ANCSA corporations consultation policy.