Creating Section 508 Compliant Electronic Documents

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Transcript: 
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Sid Sharma: Hi everyone.

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Welcome to the webinar "Creating Section 508
Compliant Electronic Documents."

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The focus of this webinar is on creating accessible
MS Word and Portable Document Format -- PDF

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-- documents.

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I'm Sid Sharma.

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I'm the DOI Section 508 program manager, and
I'm joined by my colleague Catherine Emmett.

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Let's start with a brief background on Section
508.

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What is Section 508 of the Rehabilitation
Act of 1973?

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In 1998, Congress amended the Rehabilitation
Act to require all federal agencies to develop,

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procure, maintain, and use information and
communication technology -- ICT -- also known

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as electronic and information technology -- E&IT
-- that is accessible to everybody, including

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individuals with disabilities.

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The purpose of the law is to ensure that individuals
with disabilities, both federal employees

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and members of the public with disabilities,
have access to and use of information and

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data that is comparable to the access and
use provided to individuals without disabilities.

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Section 508 was enacted to eliminate barriers
in information technology, to make available

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new opportunities for persons with disabilities,
and to encourage development of technologies

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that will help achieve these goals.

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What are some examples of information and
communication technology or ICT?

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ICT includes products and services such as
computers and peripheral equipment.

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Keyboard and mouse must conform to section
508 requirements.

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Software telecommunications equipment, information
kiosks, and transaction machines.

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Web sites, both Internet as well as intranet
pages and web applications.

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Videos and multimedia products.

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Computer tablets, mobile devices.

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Office equipment such as copiers and fax machines.

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Electronic documents such as MS Office and
portable document format documents.

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Social media applications.

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For example, Twitter posts that contain images,
for the Twitter post to be accessible the

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images must have Alt Text.

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My colleague Catherine will touch on that
during her training.

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Finally, ICT support services such as IT Help
Desks, Call Centers and training services.

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When section 508 was enacted it required the
US Architectural and Transportation Barriers

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Compliance board, the US Access board, to
develop accessibility standards for various

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IT products and services.

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The accessibility standards are available
at 36CFR1194.

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All federal agencies must ensure that their
IT products and services conform to these

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accessibility standards.

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Now, in addition to the law and the Access
board's accessibility standards the Federal

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Acquisitions Regulations, FAR, states that
federal agencies must ensure that IT products

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allow individuals with disabilities to have
access to and use of information and data

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that is comparable to the access and use provided
to individuals without disabilities.

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As many of you know, the FAR provides uniform
policies and procedures for the acquisitions

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of goods and services by federal agencies.

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On February 5, 2016, "375 Departmental Manual
Chapter Eight" was published.

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375 DM 8 is the Department of Interior section
508 policy.

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It provides policy and responsibilities to
bureaus and offices for implementing the requirements

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of section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of
1973.

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Why is it important to make electronic documents
accessible?

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According to a 2010 Census Bureau report,
approximately 56.7 million Americans report

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having a disability.

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That is approximately 20 percent of the total
population.

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Approximately 8.8 percent of DOYs work force
is disabled.

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According to the DOYs Office of Human Resources
in is our goal to increase hiring of individuals

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with disabilities to reach 12 percent of the
work force.

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Making documents accessible is important so
that individuals with disabilities can access

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important information contained in the documents.

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Individuals with disabilities may include
blind or low-vision, a deaf or a hard of hearing,

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individuals having physical or intellectual
disabilities.

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Assistive technology is used by individuals
with these disabilities to help them understand

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electronic information.

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For example, screen readers are text-to-speech
software that assists individuals who are

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blind, who have a low vision or a learning
disability.

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This technology reads the information on a
page.

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Accessible documents work in partnership with
assistive technology to ensure that individuals

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with disabilities have access to the important
information that you are creating in your

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documents, and to gain access to information
in a comparable way as their not-disabled

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peers.

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It allows individuals, federal employees with
disabilities to access the input information

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so that they can perform their jobs, and it
allows members of the public with disabilities

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to learn about our various programs and mission.

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That concludes the background on section 508.

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I'll turn the presentation over to my colleague
Catherine.

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Catherine Emmett: Hi guys.

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I'm Catherine [inaudible 6:52] , Section 508
Coordinator.

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I am here to go over how we actually make
Word documents and PDFs accessible.

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Now, we are all content creators.

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We create electronic documents every day.

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Some of them end up on our Internet.

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Some of them end up on a public facing website,
which we email around to large groups of people.

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But, you never know who is on the other side
of that email or who is reading your website.

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We need to make sure that all of our work
is accessible.

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508 and accessibility is relevant to all of
us because we are all creating content.

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Now, the government, we are in the business
of serving all of the people, not just the

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80 percent of the people without disabilities.

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And we definitely don't want to create obstacles
to information.

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We are going to teach you in this training
just a couple of ways that you can avoid building

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obstacles when you are intending to share
information.

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How is it that we make a Word document accessible?

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Well, we pay attention to a couple, what I
call "big ticket items" when it comes to accessibility.

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Those include document formatting, which are
things like your file name.

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Text formatting, like how to use styles to
create headings.

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How we create lists and organize tables.

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We watch out for our object formatting.

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We use built-in features to create our data
tables, and we need alt-text for images.

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Now, when it comes to color, we have to watch
how we use color because we can't use color

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alone to convey meaning and we have to be
mindful of our color contrast.

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Now, if that seems like a lot and a big list,
it's not so bad.

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We are going to unpack this one-by-one as
we go through the training.

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But the first thing I want to show you is
Microsoft Word's Accessibility Checker.

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The Accessibility Checker checks documents
for any content that people with disabilities

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might find difficult to read.

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It's located under the File tab under Info
and Check for Issues.

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Now, we're going to take a quick look on a
Word document so we can figure out how to

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use the Accessibility Checker.

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Here's like a little sample manual that I
have here and I am going to open my Accessibility

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Checker.

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To do that, I'm going to go to the File tab,
drag down to Info.

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Go over to Check for Issues and select Check
Accessibility from the drop down menu.

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When I do that, you notice that the Accessibility
Checker opens here on a panel on the right

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side of my screen, and it's telling me that
I have a warning and that is under Inspection

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Results.

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Inspection Results appear at the top of the
Accessibility Checker.

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Under the results is a section for this additional
information.

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What are my warnings?

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You will see if I click on my warnings here,
it tells me I have 19 repeated blank characters.

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I am going to select my error and see what
happens.

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Let's reveal the document formatting.

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You will see here that somebody hit enter
19 times.

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Now, what kind of person would do such a thing?

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Let's see.

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We'll go down to the next page.

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They wanted to start Chapter 2 on a clean
page.

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But that is not how we will format our documents
because you see, every single one of those

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hard returns, every one of those is going
to read as a blank to a screen reader.

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Someone using assistive technology might hear,
"Blank, blank, blank," 19 times before they

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get to Chapter 2.

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That is going to be a horrible user experience.

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That is not what we want to do.

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How do we do it the right way?

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All you have to do is, you first get rid of
all these extra blank spaces.

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We want to insert just a page break.

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It's such a simple thing to do but it makes
a big difference.

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We're going to go to the Page Layout tab and
go over to Breaks.

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I can create a Section Break that takes me
to the next page.

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Now, I don't have all of those empty spaces.

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I won't have to listen to "Blank."

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You'll see that under my Inspection Results
in the Accessibility Checker it tells now

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that there are no issues found, which is wonderful.

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I'm going to walk you through this Accessibility
Checker one more time in case you blanked.

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Here are my warnings under the Inspection
Results and below that, under Additional Information

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it tells me why I need to fix my error.

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It tells me that spaces, tabs and empty paragraphs
can be perceived as blanks.

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Then it tells me how to fix the problem.

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That is very, very helpful.

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Again, I'm going to close my Accessibility
Checker now.

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You can open it any time while you're working
in your document by just going to File, Info,

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Check for Issues, Check Accessibility.

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You can open and close the Accessibility Checker
as much as you want.

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If you're new to accessibility I highly recommend
that you turn on the Accessibility Checker

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at the beginning of your document because
it's going to tell you whenever you make a

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mistake.

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I'd rather know right away if I've made a
mistake in a document than wait to the very

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end and see that I made the same mistake 15
times.

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If I just had the Accessibility Checker open
I would've known.

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Another great thing about the Accessibility
Checker is that it's located in the same place

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in PowerPoint and Excel.

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If you know how to use this in Word you can
carry this information over to help you create

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accessible PowerPoints and accessible Excel
documents.

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Now, this next slide is just a quick snapshot
of the Inspection Results of the Accessibility

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Checker.

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Now, we're going to move on to our document
formatting.

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We're going to revisit the idea of descriptive
file names.

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A descriptive file name identifies the document
and its purpose.

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If somebody sends it to you, you read the
title of your attachment and you know what

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you're about to get when you open it.

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Don't just save things with crazy document
titles.

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I know it's easy to go onto the Internet and
just download a document.

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It has some crazy file name.

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It's like 20 characters long.

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It's some nonsensical string of letters and
numbers you can't pronounce and it has no

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meaning to you but we don't rename it.

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You save it in your My Documents folder.

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Then three months later you want to find that
document and you can't because you have no

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idea what you called it.

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If you just use a descriptive file name it'll
be easier for you to find your material.

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If somebody who is on the receiving end of
your email with your attachment, if they save

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it it'll be easier for them to find it.

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Someone using a screen reader will find it
much easier to locate, open that file and

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switch between files.

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Now, I know in a lot of bureaus we're adopting
specific naming conventions for our files.

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People often ask me, "Is that OK?

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These seem like weird acronyms.

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Is that still a descriptive file name?"

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The answer is it can still be a descriptive
file name so long as everyone understands

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the file naming conventions and can find a
list of any abbreviations that you used to

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help understand the file name.

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Now, we're going to move on to text formatting.

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The first thing that we're going to talk about
is how to use styles to create headings.

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We're all familiar with headings.

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We use them to break up content.

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Let's say you pick up a big manual and you're
just flipping through and you're looking for

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Chapter 2.

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You're just thumbing through and you look
for that big bold print.

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It's big, it's bold, it's black and it's in
the middle of the page.

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You know that's a heading because you're relying
on all those visual cues.

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Assistive technology can't access information
in purely visual cues.

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We need to use things like styles so that
Microsoft Word knows it's a heading.

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That allows someone using assistive technology
to use keyboard shortcuts to jump from heading

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to heading to heading much like a sighted
user would just scan a page from heading to

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heading to heading.

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Now, let's open up a Word document and let's
see how this work.

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I see I still have my Accessibility Checker
opened here, I'm going to close that.

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All right, here's my automatic table of contents.

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That's one of the first benefits of headings.

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It allows you to generate this great, easy
to use table of contents.

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Now, I'm going to scroll down to page two
and you'll see my page shows "Chapter 1 Overview"

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in big bold letters.

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Let's see if this is actually a heading or
we're just relying on bold.

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I'm going to go down to the text here and
I'm going to highlight it.

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I'm going to look at my styles.

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See under the Home tab here?

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When you go over to Styles "Normal" is highlighted.

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This means it's just normal text.

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It is not a heading.

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It would not be identified by a screen reader
as a heading.

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What we need to do is establish a heading.

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With my text highlighted I'm just going to
go select Heading One from the Styles menu.

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You see what happened?

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This is really aggravating to a lot of people.

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The text changes, the font changes, the size
changes, the color changes.

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They say, "That's not what I wanted."

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Then, what a lot of people do is they'll just
highlight the text and they go over to the

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Fonts and they start changing things around
but you don't have to do that.

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It's very easy to modify your heading styles
in Word.

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All I have to do is right-click on Heading
One under Styles and drag down to Modify.

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Now, I have a Modify Style dialogue box where
I can make any changes that I need.

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I can change my font back to Times New Roman.

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I can make the size whatever I want and I
can change my color of my text back to black

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and just hit OK.

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Now, anytime I highlight text and select Heading
One from Styles that text will adopt that

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formatting.

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Right now I'm going to highlight "One Point,
One Purpose" and click Heading One.

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You'll see that it's adopted the Heading One
formatting.

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I'll highlight that again and select Heading
Two.

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It goes back to the proper formatting for
a heading level two.

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Now, using headings also makes your document
easier to navigate by using the Navigation

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pane.

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I'm going to go to the View tab and under
Show I'm going to check the box besides Navigation

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Pane.

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Now you'll see my Navigation pane open in
the left side of my document.

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If you're editing a large document this makes
it so easy to go from section to section and

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find the spot that you want to update.

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That's Headings in a nutshell and they make
everyone's lives so much easier.

00:17:59.279 --> 00:18:05.299
Now, we're going to take a quick look at lists.

00:18:05.299 --> 00:18:11.080
We're all familiar with lists, they just create
order in your document.

00:18:11.080 --> 00:18:16.200
They make it easier to read a long string
of information.

00:18:16.200 --> 00:18:22.370
Using the built in List feature creates a
structure that screen readers can identify.

00:18:22.370 --> 00:18:28.789
When you use Word to create lists and if you
use Word to create headings, that information

00:18:28.789 --> 00:18:31.220
is going to carry over into Adobe.

00:18:31.220 --> 00:18:37.929
If you save your document as a PDF Adobe will
also know what is a list and what is a heading.

00:18:37.929 --> 00:18:42.950
We'll take a quick look at how we deal with
our lists.

00:18:42.950 --> 00:18:44.230
Here's a quick list.

00:18:44.230 --> 00:18:49.520
All I'm going to do is highlight the different
items in this list.

00:18:49.520 --> 00:18:53.019
I have a list of six items.

00:18:53.019 --> 00:18:59.659
Under Home I'm going to go to Paragraph and
from the Numbering library I can select any

00:18:59.659 --> 00:19:01.809
numbering scheme that I want.

00:19:01.809 --> 00:19:05.190
Numbers, letters, roman numerals, anything.

00:19:05.190 --> 00:19:11.850
This is remarkably helpful because screen
readers, they don't identify structure that

00:19:11.850 --> 00:19:15.340
we create by just using tabs and spaces.

00:19:15.340 --> 00:19:20.769
You have to use the built in features with
Word to create a structure that's identifiable

00:19:20.769 --> 00:19:22.970
and easy to use.

00:19:22.970 --> 00:19:27.940
I'm going to close out of this document here
and keep on rolling.

00:19:27.940 --> 00:19:30.970
Now, we're moving onto tables.

00:19:30.970 --> 00:19:34.490
These aren't as obvious as things like headers
and lists.

00:19:34.490 --> 00:19:38.460
They take a lot more thought when you're developing
them.

00:19:38.460 --> 00:19:40.940
What does it take to create an accessible
table?

00:19:40.940 --> 00:19:42.850
Well, three things.

00:19:42.850 --> 00:19:47.009
Number one, you must use the built in features
to create a table.

00:19:47.009 --> 00:19:49.500
It's a common theme.

00:19:49.500 --> 00:19:53.440
Number two, you must identify your header
rows.

00:19:53.440 --> 00:19:58.149
Number three, you cannot merge or split cells.

00:19:58.149 --> 00:20:00.169
Now, that doesn't seem very intuitive.

00:20:00.169 --> 00:20:03.009
I don't think we even think about that when
we create tables.

00:20:03.009 --> 00:20:05.940
We merge and split cells all the time.

00:20:05.940 --> 00:20:14.059
When we do that in a Word document assistive
technology loses track of what data cell can

00:20:14.059 --> 00:20:16.769
go with what header.

00:20:16.769 --> 00:20:20.789
We have to try not to merge or split cells
in word documents.

00:20:20.789 --> 00:20:24.429
I understand that some tables can get pretty
unwieldy.

00:20:24.429 --> 00:20:30.779
When they do, if it's complex stuff, you're
forced to merge or split your cell.

00:20:30.779 --> 00:20:32.070
That's OK.

00:20:32.070 --> 00:20:39.470
If you absolutely must you just have to take
a different approach like convert that Word

00:20:39.470 --> 00:20:47.559
document to a PDF and then use Adobe to associate
the correct data cells with the correct header

00:20:47.559 --> 00:20:48.559
cells.

00:20:48.559 --> 00:20:51.090
We're going to go over how to do that in a
couple minutes.

00:20:51.090 --> 00:20:54.570
It's difficult and it's time consuming.

00:20:54.570 --> 00:20:59.720
I would really urge you that when you are
first creating your table that you keep that

00:20:59.720 --> 00:21:00.720
in mind.

00:21:00.720 --> 00:21:04.780
Maybe you just need two smaller tables.

00:21:04.780 --> 00:21:08.269
Maybe there's a simpler way to present your
information.

00:21:08.269 --> 00:21:10.120
Ask yourself that first.

00:21:10.120 --> 00:21:12.700
"Can I make this easier to read?"

00:21:12.700 --> 00:21:19.139
We should ask ourselves that all the time
anyway but especially when it comes to tables.

00:21:19.139 --> 00:21:23.019
We're going to open a simple table and take
a quick look.

00:21:23.019 --> 00:21:25.299
Now we're opening a very basic table.

00:21:25.299 --> 00:21:30.039
It has two columns, radius and [inaudible
21:28] so it's very simple.

00:21:30.039 --> 00:21:31.350
What are we looking for again?

00:21:31.350 --> 00:21:36.379
One, we want to make sure that this table
was created using the automatic features in

00:21:36.379 --> 00:21:37.379
Word.

00:21:37.379 --> 00:21:40.620
Two, we want to make sure that our header
rows are identified.

00:21:40.620 --> 00:21:44.549
Three, we want to make sure that there are
no merged or split cells.

00:21:44.549 --> 00:21:45.840
This is pretty easy.

00:21:45.840 --> 00:21:51.070
I'm in my table and you can see that the Table
tools menu is open.

00:21:51.070 --> 00:21:55.950
This means the table was created using the
automatic features in Word, which is great.

00:21:55.950 --> 00:21:58.600
Next, we need to look for our header rows.

00:21:58.600 --> 00:22:03.880
I'm going to highlight my top row here and
I'm going to select Layout from the Table

00:22:03.880 --> 00:22:05.470
tools menu.

00:22:05.470 --> 00:22:10.090
Under Data I'm looking to see if Repeat Header
Rows is highlighted.

00:22:10.090 --> 00:22:14.940
It's not, all I have to do to fix this is
click Repeat Header Rows.

00:22:14.940 --> 00:22:18.169
Now the header rows are clearly identified.

00:22:18.169 --> 00:22:23.070
Now, the third item on our checklist here,
are there merged or split cells?

00:22:23.070 --> 00:22:24.070
Nope.

00:22:24.070 --> 00:22:25.720
There are no merged or split cells here.

00:22:25.720 --> 00:22:28.190
We are just fine.

00:22:28.190 --> 00:22:32.250
Let me show you a common mistake that we see
all the time so we can avoid it.

00:22:32.250 --> 00:22:38.929
A lot of times people insert a table at the
top of the row then they merge the cells.

00:22:38.929 --> 00:22:43.139
Then, they just type the title right here.

00:22:43.139 --> 00:22:44.440
You don't want to do that.

00:22:44.440 --> 00:22:49.769
You just created a complex table for no reason
whatsoever.

00:22:49.769 --> 00:22:57.789
All you had to do to keep your table accessible
was put the title above and outside of the

00:22:57.789 --> 00:23:02.320
table.

00:23:02.320 --> 00:23:09.629
We're going to see how difficult it is to
create an accessible table if it's complex

00:23:09.629 --> 00:23:10.989
in Adobe.

00:23:10.989 --> 00:23:16.450
When you see that you're really going to make
sure that you create simple tables.

00:23:16.450 --> 00:23:22.769
Now, we're going to move on to Alternate Text.

00:23:22.769 --> 00:23:24.899
Alternate Text is easy to do.

00:23:24.899 --> 00:23:29.610
All you have to do is right-click on the image
and select the format command from the dropdown

00:23:29.610 --> 00:23:30.610
menu.

00:23:30.610 --> 00:23:33.970
You select Alt Text and type your description.

00:23:33.970 --> 00:23:35.350
Easy, right?

00:23:35.350 --> 00:23:37.690
Let's take a look at it in a Word document.

00:23:37.690 --> 00:23:41.999
This is a sample document on Social Media
Guidance.

00:23:41.999 --> 00:23:47.659
We'll see that we're addressing Twitter and
how to make Twitter posts accessible by adding

00:23:47.659 --> 00:23:49.049
Alternate Text.

00:23:49.049 --> 00:23:52.960
Here are my instructions, they look right
and I have a visual here.

00:23:52.960 --> 00:23:59.249
It says "Add description" it's showing me
the Add Description field in Twitter.

00:23:59.249 --> 00:24:04.039
I want to make sure that every reader of this
document knows that this image is here.

00:24:04.039 --> 00:24:12.369
All I have to do is right-click on my image,
select Format Picture, select Alt Text and

00:24:12.369 --> 00:24:18.149
add my description under Alt Text in the Description
field.

00:24:18.149 --> 00:24:20.169
Do not use the Title field.

00:24:20.169 --> 00:24:25.270
What is going to be read to a screen reader
is what is under Description.

00:24:25.270 --> 00:24:30.220
What is under Description will also carry
over into Adobe.

00:24:30.220 --> 00:24:33.750
What is it that I actually want to put in
my description field?

00:24:33.750 --> 00:24:38.529
When you're writing Alt Text you want to make
sure that you describe the purpose or the

00:24:38.529 --> 00:24:41.049
function of the image.

00:24:41.049 --> 00:24:43.500
What is the purpose or the function of this
image right here?

00:24:43.500 --> 00:24:47.440
Well, it's showing me what the Add Description
field looks like in Twitter.

00:24:47.440 --> 00:24:58.450
Under Description I could just say "Image
of the Add Description field in Twitter."

00:24:58.450 --> 00:25:00.159
That's all I have to do.

00:25:00.159 --> 00:25:04.600
We'll take a look at that one more time.

00:25:04.600 --> 00:25:11.450
Right-click on your image, select Format Picture,
go to Alt Text and add your Alternate Text

00:25:11.450 --> 00:25:14.200
in the Description field.

00:25:14.200 --> 00:25:15.650
Not so bad, right?

00:25:15.650 --> 00:25:18.019
You just have to remember to do it.

00:25:18.019 --> 00:25:22.619
Remember, all of this information is going
to carry over into Adobe if you save this

00:25:22.619 --> 00:25:24.739
document as a PDF.

00:25:24.739 --> 00:25:26.370
That will save you so much time.

00:25:26.370 --> 00:25:31.739
This is much, much easier to do in Word than
it is in Adobe.

00:25:31.739 --> 00:25:38.629
Now, this next slide is just a quick image
of what the Alt Text field looks like in Word

00:25:38.629 --> 00:25:39.629
2013.

00:25:39.629 --> 00:25:42.970
It looks a little different but the instructions
are the same.

00:25:42.970 --> 00:25:48.369
Right-click, select Format, go to Alt Text,
write your Alt Text in the Description box.

00:25:48.369 --> 00:25:53.710
Same thing, slightly different look.

00:25:53.710 --> 00:25:57.549
Now we're moving on to color and color contrast.

00:25:57.549 --> 00:25:58.570
We love color, right?

00:25:58.570 --> 00:26:04.399
It makes boring information easier to bare
and it makes your documents pretty.

00:26:04.399 --> 00:26:07.190
We know nothing's wrong with that.

00:26:07.190 --> 00:26:13.320
The only thing you have to look out for is
using color as the only means of conveying

00:26:13.320 --> 00:26:14.320
information.

00:26:14.320 --> 00:26:20.500
If you do that, if color is the only way to
understand your document, users that are blind,

00:26:20.500 --> 00:26:24.260
low-vision or color blind won't have access
to that information.

00:26:24.260 --> 00:26:27.590
Go ahead, use all the color you want.

00:26:27.590 --> 00:26:36.369
Make your brochures beautiful, just make sure
that you use words or symbols or some other

00:26:36.369 --> 00:26:40.299
way of understanding that information as well.

00:26:40.299 --> 00:26:45.769
Next, when it comes to color we have to have
a good color contrast ratio.

00:26:45.769 --> 00:26:49.840
You need a color contrast ratio of at least
4.5 to 1.

00:26:49.840 --> 00:26:54.270
There are exceptions just like there are exceptions
to everything.

00:26:54.270 --> 00:27:00.549
Large text, that's text 18 point or above
only requires a color contrast ratio of three

00:27:00.549 --> 00:27:02.909
to one.

00:27:02.909 --> 00:27:08.700
To give us an idea of what these color contrasts
look like, you see the blue text on this white

00:27:08.700 --> 00:27:11.700
background on the OCAO slide I have here.

00:27:11.700 --> 00:27:13.519
This is the OCAO template.

00:27:13.519 --> 00:27:21.119
Now, this only has a color contrast ratio
of three to one but the text is over 18 points

00:27:21.119 --> 00:27:25.190
so technically it meets the accessibility
standards.

00:27:25.190 --> 00:27:31.491
I know we don't always know how to tell what
our color contrast is, but all you have to

00:27:31.491 --> 00:27:35.749
do, like everything else these days, cruise
the web until you find the right tool for

00:27:35.749 --> 00:27:36.749
you.

00:27:36.749 --> 00:27:39.509
There's tons of color contrast checkers available
online.

00:27:39.509 --> 00:27:44.620
I'm just going to pull up mine real quick
so we can see how easy this really is.

00:27:44.620 --> 00:27:47.090
Again, this is just one that I like.

00:27:47.090 --> 00:27:52.419
You can pick any number of color contrast
checkers online.

00:27:52.419 --> 00:27:58.409
Here, you'll see that I can select a foreground
color and a background color.

00:27:58.409 --> 00:28:03.419
I'm going to click Foreground, remember our
OCAO template, we had a blue text.

00:28:03.419 --> 00:28:05.600
Let's try to emulate that here.

00:28:05.600 --> 00:28:10.460
I´m going to select a blue, I'm going to
hit OK.

00:28:10.460 --> 00:28:16.729
Now, my background, on our slides it was white
so I'm going to leave my background to white.

00:28:16.729 --> 00:28:22.460
Now, you'll see that this color contrast checker
gives me a sample of what that text looks

00:28:22.460 --> 00:28:23.549
like.

00:28:23.549 --> 00:28:26.980
When I look down here, I see I have a lot
of red circles.

00:28:26.980 --> 00:28:34.179
It's generally not a good thing but look,
this one here, AA, it says 18 point for 18

00:28:34.179 --> 00:28:35.179
point font.

00:28:35.179 --> 00:28:37.200
That's green and I have a check mark.

00:28:37.200 --> 00:28:44.070
When I hover over the circle it tells me that
this is the WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria.

00:28:44.070 --> 00:28:48.080
Now, WCAG stands for the Web Content Accessibility
Guidelines.

00:28:48.080 --> 00:28:54.509
The accessibility standards incorporate WCAG
2.0 AA.

00:28:54.509 --> 00:29:00.950
This color I have here, this blue on the white
background satisfies the Web Content Accessibility

00:29:00.950 --> 00:29:04.269
Guidelines 2.0 for 18 point font.

00:29:04.269 --> 00:29:09.200
That also satisfies the accessibility standards.

00:29:09.200 --> 00:29:14.879
That is just one of many color contrast checkers
that you can check out online.

00:29:14.879 --> 00:29:19.669
OK, now we're moving on to the requirements
for accessible PDFs.

00:29:19.669 --> 00:29:23.921
You're going to see a lot of the same concepts
here which is good, less work for us to do

00:29:23.921 --> 00:29:26.139
over again.

00:29:26.139 --> 00:29:29.559
We have document properties to pay attention
to.

00:29:29.559 --> 00:29:33.620
We want to make sure all of our documents
have descriptive file names.

00:29:33.620 --> 00:29:38.559
We also have a couple of new things here,
document language.

00:29:38.559 --> 00:29:44.090
We want to make sure that assistive technology
can even access the PDF in the first place.

00:29:44.090 --> 00:29:49.340
We have all the same concepts when it comes
to objects that we had with Word.

00:29:49.340 --> 00:29:52.250
Add Alternate Text to your images and things
like that.

00:29:52.250 --> 00:29:54.229
It's also the same with color.

00:29:54.229 --> 00:30:00.210
We still need that color contrast ratio of
4.5 to 1 for regular sized text and we also

00:30:00.210 --> 00:30:04.629
can't use color alone as the only way of conveying
meaning.

00:30:04.629 --> 00:30:09.690
Then, we also have something new in Adobe,
our structure tags.

00:30:09.690 --> 00:30:11.179
What are those?

00:30:11.179 --> 00:30:16.039
Well, structure tags tell you what is on a
document.

00:30:16.039 --> 00:30:21.749
They let people who use assistive technology
understand what content is on the page.

00:30:21.749 --> 00:30:28.309
We're going to unpack that in detail in just
a moment.

00:30:28.309 --> 00:30:31.970
Document properties, we're going to start
out with our document language.

00:30:31.970 --> 00:30:36.210
Screen readers use the language setting in
document properties to come up with the correct

00:30:36.210 --> 00:30:37.929
pronunciation.

00:30:37.929 --> 00:30:42.039
If your document is in English your reading
options have to be set to English.

00:30:42.039 --> 00:30:44.480
If it's in Spanish set it to Spanish.

00:30:44.480 --> 00:30:47.299
Let's say you have two brochures about your
park and they're fabulous.

00:30:47.299 --> 00:30:52.159
You have one in English and you have one in
Spanish, but they're both set to English.

00:30:52.159 --> 00:30:58.289
If somebody tries to read that Spanish brochure
where the language is set to English, you

00:30:58.289 --> 00:31:02.320
are going to have one horribly pronounced
document.

00:31:02.320 --> 00:31:04.240
It's going to sound like a train wreck.

00:31:04.240 --> 00:31:08.809
Let's see how we make sure we avoid that sort
of catastrophes.

00:31:08.809 --> 00:31:10.620
Here's a sample document here.

00:31:10.620 --> 00:31:16.429
It's just a fact sheet on ranges on public
lands.

00:31:16.429 --> 00:31:18.350
How do I set my document language?

00:31:18.350 --> 00:31:21.989
I just go up to "File" on the top-left of
the screen.

00:31:21.989 --> 00:31:24.610
I drag down to "Properties."

00:31:24.610 --> 00:31:27.120
I click on the "Advanced" tab.

00:31:27.120 --> 00:31:33.249
At the bottom under "Reading Options," I select
"English" and hit "OK."

00:31:33.249 --> 00:31:35.099
Pretty easy, right?

00:31:35.099 --> 00:31:44.859
Just go to "File," "Properties," and under
"Reading Options," "English" is my language.

00:31:44.859 --> 00:31:47.830
Very simple.

00:31:47.830 --> 00:31:54.399
That's the first thing that we need to do
make sure our document is accessible and easy

00:31:54.399 --> 00:31:56.899
to get through.

00:31:56.899 --> 00:32:03.419
Next, we need to make sure that assistive
technology can even access our document.

00:32:03.419 --> 00:32:10.409
I know some bureaus, we post certain documents
with different security features of encryptions.

00:32:10.409 --> 00:32:17.889
Sometimes, that can interfere with the ability
of assistive technology to access the document.

00:32:17.889 --> 00:32:23.249
To make sure our document is accessible to
assistive technology itself, again just go

00:32:23.249 --> 00:32:26.139
to "File," and then to "Properties."

00:32:26.139 --> 00:32:28.950
This time, we're going to hit the "Security"
tab.

00:32:28.950 --> 00:32:31.299
We're going to go down.

00:32:31.299 --> 00:32:36.629
You see here under "Document Restriction Summary,"
it says, "Content copying for accessibility

00:32:36.629 --> 00:32:37.629
allowed."

00:32:37.629 --> 00:32:43.750
As long as this says "Allowed," a screen reader
will be able to access the content of your

00:32:43.750 --> 00:32:46.869
document.

00:32:46.869 --> 00:32:48.149
We're started off easy.

00:32:48.149 --> 00:32:50.729
Now we're going to move on to our structure
tags.

00:32:50.729 --> 00:32:56.309
As we said before, screen readers rely on
tags to interpret document structure such

00:32:56.309 --> 00:32:59.619
headings, paragraphs, tables and figures.

00:32:59.619 --> 00:33:03.720
When you open a document, the screen reader
knows what's going on and knows when it comes

00:33:03.720 --> 00:33:07.639
across a figure to look for alternate text.

00:33:07.639 --> 00:33:13.659
All of the meaningful text and objects in
our document must correspond to a tag.

00:33:13.659 --> 00:33:18.080
Every tag, as we'll see in a little bit, has
a number.

00:33:18.080 --> 00:33:23.639
All of those numbers have to correspond to
the visual reading order of the document,

00:33:23.639 --> 00:33:29.249
meaning it just has to make sense.

00:33:29.249 --> 00:33:32.409
One type of tag we have is a heading tag.

00:33:32.409 --> 00:33:34.570
Adobe has tons of tag choices.

00:33:34.570 --> 00:33:40.470
You can have figures, you can have tables,
you can have headings, you can have background.

00:33:40.470 --> 00:33:44.419
These are all different things that make up
our documents.

00:33:44.419 --> 00:33:47.330
Let's talk a little about headings.

00:33:47.330 --> 00:33:51.999
Heading break up content and make finding
information easier.

00:33:51.999 --> 00:33:56.649
Assistive technology cannot and for meaning
from visual headings things that you create

00:33:56.649 --> 00:33:57.850
bold and underline.

00:33:57.850 --> 00:33:59.059
We remember this from Word.

00:33:59.059 --> 00:34:02.489
We all ready discussed that.

00:34:02.489 --> 00:34:07.279
All of our headings should be tagged with
a heading tag.

00:34:07.279 --> 00:34:10.570
Heading tags must match the visual outline.

00:34:10.570 --> 00:34:14.919
Let's say you have three headings on a page,
we want to read the first one first.

00:34:14.919 --> 00:34:17.260
Common sense.

00:34:17.260 --> 00:34:23.040
Our headings that we created in Word don't
convert over to Adobe if they were created

00:34:23.040 --> 00:34:25.650
using the heading and styles.

00:34:25.650 --> 00:34:28.400
What does it look like?

00:34:28.400 --> 00:34:32.710
What do these tags look like for our headings
when we convert them from Word?

00:34:32.710 --> 00:34:39.310
Why don't we take a look at our manual that
we've worked with a little bit earlier.

00:34:39.310 --> 00:34:42.420
Close this.

00:34:42.420 --> 00:34:44.909
Here is our sample manual.

00:34:44.909 --> 00:34:47.860
On the left side of my screen here, you see
we have that little thing that looks like

00:34:47.860 --> 00:34:50.050
a shopping tag, a little price tag?

00:34:50.050 --> 00:34:55.100
I'm going to click on that and it opens up
my tag tree here.

00:34:55.100 --> 00:34:56.360
See this link, TOC.

00:34:56.360 --> 00:35:00.560
If I click on it, that's the tab for table
of contents.

00:35:00.560 --> 00:35:03.830
You'll see that my table of contents is not
highlighted in blue.

00:35:03.830 --> 00:35:09.050
H1, that's heading one.

00:35:09.050 --> 00:35:11.390
That is my purpose section here.

00:35:11.390 --> 00:35:12.390
That's a heading.

00:35:12.390 --> 00:35:14.400
Look, do you see this little L?

00:35:14.400 --> 00:35:16.080
That stands for list.

00:35:16.080 --> 00:35:25.140
When I select it in the tag tree, my list
is highlighted in blue here.

00:35:25.140 --> 00:35:26.930
That is what converts.

00:35:26.930 --> 00:35:31.290
I didn't have to do any work really at all
in Adobe.

00:35:31.290 --> 00:35:38.270
All I had to do was format my Word document
properly, and the tags just carried on over.

00:35:38.270 --> 00:35:44.520
That is a good way to keep things simple.

00:35:44.520 --> 00:35:51.570
When it comes to things like watermarks, or
headers, and footers, that information can

00:35:51.570 --> 00:35:55.560
be difficult if not impossible to get to with
a screen reader.

00:35:55.560 --> 00:36:02.060
Information, and headers, and footers, and
watermarks, they should correspond to text

00:36:02.060 --> 00:36:04.970
inside the document, not hidden away.

00:36:04.970 --> 00:36:07.590
I know watermarks, it seems too obvious.

00:36:07.590 --> 00:36:11.600
Let's say you have a confidential document
and confidential watermarks just splashed

00:36:11.600 --> 00:36:12.640
across the page.

00:36:12.640 --> 00:36:13.640
It's huge, right?

00:36:13.640 --> 00:36:15.540
Who could miss it?

00:36:15.540 --> 00:36:20.220
Someone using assistive technology could miss
that very easily.

00:36:20.220 --> 00:36:23.820
If you have these confidential documents,
and you want to make sure the information

00:36:23.820 --> 00:36:30.820
is shared properly, make sure that that marking
appears in the actual text of the document

00:36:30.820 --> 00:36:37.660
itself and not just a watermark because that
watermark isn't going to be accessible.

00:36:37.660 --> 00:36:43.560
That could land you in a whole lot of trouble
if your document isn't shared properly.

00:36:43.560 --> 00:36:51.630
Here are some more structure tags for you,
decorative content.

00:36:51.630 --> 00:36:56.980
These are little figures in our document like
this useless little star here on the bottom

00:36:56.980 --> 00:36:58.630
of my slide.

00:36:58.630 --> 00:37:02.570
It's not conveying any meaning at all to the
page.

00:37:02.570 --> 00:37:07.410
It would be OK just to let a screen reader
skip over it because if you have ornamental

00:37:07.410 --> 00:37:11.810
images and you had alternate text to all of
them, it might actually make your document

00:37:11.810 --> 00:37:13.150
difficult to read.

00:37:13.150 --> 00:37:18.570
Nobody wants to hear things like, "Star, heart,
cloud, star, cloud," as they go through their

00:37:18.570 --> 00:37:19.570
document.

00:37:19.570 --> 00:37:22.930
Even though you [inaudible 37:20] attention
to add alternate text for every little item

00:37:22.930 --> 00:37:25.470
on your page, you don't have to.

00:37:25.470 --> 00:37:30.510
Sometimes when you do that, you're just making
your document more difficult to read.

00:37:30.510 --> 00:37:33.630
Let's take a look at how we should deal with
this.

00:37:33.630 --> 00:37:38.050
If I have ornamental images, what do I do?

00:37:38.050 --> 00:37:40.750
You want to tag them to background.

00:37:40.750 --> 00:37:46.340
That way, a screen reader won't have to bother
going over it.

00:37:46.340 --> 00:37:49.300
How do we do that?

00:37:49.300 --> 00:37:50.300
Let's see here.

00:37:50.300 --> 00:37:52.240
I'm going to go "Tools."

00:37:52.240 --> 00:37:55.860
I want to drag down to "Accessibility."

00:37:55.860 --> 00:38:00.290
You'll see, I've created a shortcut to accessibility
on the right side of my screen.

00:38:00.290 --> 00:38:03.100
I'm going to click "Accessibility."

00:38:03.100 --> 00:38:05.610
I'm going to open my reading order tool.

00:38:05.610 --> 00:38:11.420
See on the right side here on this panel,
I have all of my accessibility tools open.

00:38:11.420 --> 00:38:13.460
I'm going to click on "Reading Order."

00:38:13.460 --> 00:38:16.230
This opens my "Touch Up Reading Order Tool."

00:38:16.230 --> 00:38:21.610
You'll see in the first part of the tool at
the top of this box here, I have a couple

00:38:21.610 --> 00:38:22.720
different tagging options.

00:38:22.720 --> 00:38:25.910
These are the most popular tags.

00:38:25.910 --> 00:38:30.580
I want to look at my document.

00:38:30.580 --> 00:38:33.160
I'm looking for ornamental images.

00:38:33.160 --> 00:38:34.730
This one looks pretty useless.

00:38:34.730 --> 00:38:37.830
It's just a little icon of a laptop.

00:38:37.830 --> 00:38:42.950
I don't need to explain to someone that there's
an icon of a laptop sitting open inside of

00:38:42.950 --> 00:38:43.990
a black circle.

00:38:43.990 --> 00:38:45.291
No one what hear that.

00:38:45.291 --> 00:38:47.070
That has nothing to do with the document.

00:38:47.070 --> 00:38:49.090
It's just going to make people angry.

00:38:49.090 --> 00:38:53.710
All I have to do is draw a little square over
that icon.

00:38:53.710 --> 00:38:59.870
Now, in my Touch Up Reading Order tool, I
select "Background."

00:38:59.870 --> 00:39:01.340
See?

00:39:01.340 --> 00:39:02.340
Very simple.

00:39:02.340 --> 00:39:05.270
Now, you'll see they have a little number
one here.

00:39:05.270 --> 00:39:06.730
That is my reading order.

00:39:06.730 --> 00:39:09.930
This is the first item in the reading order.

00:39:09.930 --> 00:39:11.210
It's this one.

00:39:11.210 --> 00:39:14.300
The screen reader's going to look for number
one, tag one.

00:39:14.300 --> 00:39:15.440
It's going to say background.

00:39:15.440 --> 00:39:17.660
It is going to remain silent.

00:39:17.660 --> 00:39:19.950
Screen reader won't actually say, "Background."

00:39:19.950 --> 00:39:24.500
Read that this is a background image and it
will not convey that information to the user.

00:39:24.500 --> 00:39:30.290
It'll give them the benefit of having a more
smooth reading experience.

00:39:30.290 --> 00:39:33.500
What about this other information I have here?

00:39:33.500 --> 00:39:37.570
I have some pictures of solar panels.

00:39:37.570 --> 00:39:39.800
This is a document about solar panels.

00:39:39.800 --> 00:39:44.890
I want to let my readers know what's actually
here.

00:39:44.890 --> 00:39:48.880
I need to add alternate text to these images.

00:39:48.880 --> 00:39:55.160
In Adobe, we also use our Touch Up Reading
Order tool to add alternate text.

00:39:55.160 --> 00:39:59.610
I'm going to close out of this so that we
can see where I found my Touch Up Reading

00:39:59.610 --> 00:40:03.980
Order tool again in case you got distracted
or for some reason, you were just really bored

00:40:03.980 --> 00:40:05.270
and you spaced out for a minute.

00:40:05.270 --> 00:40:08.710
I'm going to "Tools."

00:40:08.710 --> 00:40:10.740
Drag down "Accessibility."

00:40:10.740 --> 00:40:13.890
Now, open my Reading Order tool.

00:40:13.890 --> 00:40:21.650
With my Touch Up Reading Order tool open,
I'm going to draw a square around the picture,

00:40:21.650 --> 00:40:23.500
the solar panels here.

00:40:23.500 --> 00:40:24.570
I'm going to hit "Figure."

00:40:24.570 --> 00:40:29.640
When I hit "Figure," you'll see the word "Figure"
pops up.

00:40:29.640 --> 00:40:33.640
It tells me that there's no alternate text
exists.

00:40:33.640 --> 00:40:37.720
But we know we need alternate text to make
this document accessible.

00:40:37.720 --> 00:40:39.550
What do we do?

00:40:39.550 --> 00:40:46.890
All we have to do is right-click on that figure,
drag down to "Edit Alternate Text."

00:40:46.890 --> 00:40:52.650
When the alternate text dialog box pops up,
I just add any alternate text that I need,

00:40:52.650 --> 00:40:58.420
something that will explain the meaning or
the function of this image.

00:40:58.420 --> 00:41:06.840
I'm going to tell it, say this is an image
of solar panels illustrating whatever it is

00:41:06.840 --> 00:41:08.350
that the text has in there.

00:41:08.350 --> 00:41:10.500
You just pop that in there.

00:41:10.500 --> 00:41:12.000
Let's take a look at that again.

00:41:12.000 --> 00:41:14.420
I have my Touch Up Reading tool open.

00:41:14.420 --> 00:41:17.990
I'm going to draw a box around my figure.

00:41:17.990 --> 00:41:21.920
I'm going to select "Figure" from the Touch
Up Reading Order tool.

00:41:21.920 --> 00:41:24.060
Now, add my alternate text.

00:41:24.060 --> 00:41:31.800
I'm going to right-click on the Figure, select
"Edit Alternate Text," and add my alt text,

00:41:31.800 --> 00:41:34.890
whatever is appropriate for that picture.

00:41:34.890 --> 00:41:38.630
That is how we create alternate text.

00:41:38.630 --> 00:41:45.180
The next couple of slides here, they're just
going to show you some quick screenshots that

00:41:45.180 --> 00:41:52.350
just go over every single step that we just
took.

00:41:52.350 --> 00:41:56.740
Progressing through, there is the box that
shows us where to add our alternate text.

00:41:56.740 --> 00:42:02.740
Now, we're going to move on to data tables.

00:42:02.740 --> 00:42:07.650
When it comes to Adobe, we can make complex
tables accessible.

00:42:07.650 --> 00:42:10.000
I've had a couple questions in this training.

00:42:10.000 --> 00:42:13.850
They'll say, "You told us to keep all the
tables simple, and then your document, you

00:42:13.850 --> 00:42:15.850
showed a complex table."

00:42:15.850 --> 00:42:17.770
That's a perfectly valid question.

00:42:17.770 --> 00:42:21.560
"Why are you telling us to use simple tables,
then you turn around at the end of your training

00:42:21.560 --> 00:42:24.560
and here's a complex one?"

00:42:24.560 --> 00:42:28.460
We can't avoid complexity sometimes.

00:42:28.460 --> 00:42:30.990
It's just the way it goes.

00:42:30.990 --> 00:42:34.620
If you have a complex table, this is how we're
going to deal with it.

00:42:34.620 --> 00:42:36.090
Again, avoid it if possible.

00:42:36.090 --> 00:42:39.710
If it can't be avoided, this is how you make
is accessible.

00:42:39.710 --> 00:42:44.960
What does it take to make a data table accessible
in Adobe?

00:42:44.960 --> 00:42:46.140
Infinite time and patience.

00:42:46.140 --> 00:42:47.590
No, that's not that bad.

00:42:47.590 --> 00:42:51.020
It might feel that way in the beginning, but
it gets easier.

00:42:51.020 --> 00:42:56.430
Basic rules, the data table must correspond
to a table tag.

00:42:56.430 --> 00:42:59.650
Two, the header cells must be identified.

00:42:59.650 --> 00:43:02.400
We remember those two things from Word, right?

00:43:02.400 --> 00:43:03.400
Basic.

00:43:03.400 --> 00:43:07.820
But, when it comes to our complex tables,
the data cells have to be associated with

00:43:07.820 --> 00:43:09.480
the correct header cells.

00:43:09.480 --> 00:43:12.900
That's where things get a little bit messy.

00:43:12.900 --> 00:43:19.990
Here's an example of a completely inaccessible
table that I found on the Internet.

00:43:19.990 --> 00:43:22.530
This table has not been tagged as a table.

00:43:22.530 --> 00:43:27.110
You'll see I have the tags panel open on the
left side of this screenshot.

00:43:27.110 --> 00:43:31.770
It says "No tags available."

00:43:31.770 --> 00:43:35.090
Someone using assistive technology would have
no idea this is a table.

00:43:35.090 --> 00:43:38.380
They would just start reading it with a screen
reader.

00:43:38.380 --> 00:43:44.120
When I look at it, it looks obvious to me
visually where the columns are.

00:43:44.120 --> 00:43:46.580
My headings are in blue, wildland fires.

00:43:46.580 --> 00:43:50.610
How many are new, how many are out, what's
active.

00:43:50.610 --> 00:43:51.970
That seems easy, right?

00:43:51.970 --> 00:43:56.530
But, if you're using a screen reader when
you look at the first line of this table,

00:43:56.530 --> 00:44:02.850
it's going to say, "Alaska fire service AFS
0140-27-358.3."

00:44:02.850 --> 00:44:04.540
That means absolutely nothing.

00:44:04.540 --> 00:44:07.620
It's just a big bunch of numbers with no meaning.

00:44:07.620 --> 00:44:10.110
We don't want to do that to people.

00:44:10.110 --> 00:44:16.510
We cannot post that on our Intranet or our
Internet.

00:44:16.510 --> 00:44:19.570
How do we not do this?

00:44:19.570 --> 00:44:21.650
Let's see.

00:44:21.650 --> 00:44:25.400
We need to tag our table and establish our
header rows.

00:44:25.400 --> 00:44:31.760
Let's open up our simple table again and take
a quick look at how we evaluate it.

00:44:31.760 --> 00:44:34.680
Here's our good old radius and taper length
table.

00:44:34.680 --> 00:44:36.680
I'm going to open up my tools menu.

00:44:36.680 --> 00:44:43.580
I'm going to go to "Tools," "Accessibility,"
and I'm going to open my Touch Up Reading

00:44:43.580 --> 00:44:44.580
Order tool again.

00:44:44.580 --> 00:44:47.240
I select "Reading Order."

00:44:47.240 --> 00:44:51.030
Now you'll see that the table is highlighted
in gray.

00:44:51.030 --> 00:44:53.560
It says "Table" right on it.

00:44:53.560 --> 00:44:55.120
That's obviously tagged as a table.

00:44:55.120 --> 00:44:56.120
It says "Table."

00:44:56.120 --> 00:44:57.520
Good, check one.

00:44:57.520 --> 00:44:59.680
Adobe knows it's a table.

00:44:59.680 --> 00:45:03.690
Next, we want to see if our header rows are
specified.

00:45:03.690 --> 00:45:05.500
That might be a little more tricky.

00:45:05.500 --> 00:45:07.190
We need to open our table editor.

00:45:07.190 --> 00:45:10.360
See, it's over here on our Touch Up Reading
Order tool, but it's grayed out.

00:45:10.360 --> 00:45:12.400
I can't get to it.

00:45:12.400 --> 00:45:18.360
If you click anywhere in this table other
than this number one here, it's not going

00:45:18.360 --> 00:45:20.440
to open the table editor.

00:45:20.440 --> 00:45:25.370
Click in the number, and then your table turns
a little shade of blue.

00:45:25.370 --> 00:45:26.980
Your table editor's open.

00:45:26.980 --> 00:45:30.470
Just click the table editor, and you'll see
here.

00:45:30.470 --> 00:45:37.990
See how I have a "TH" in my radius square,
and I have a "TH" by taper length?

00:45:37.990 --> 00:45:39.200
That's a header.

00:45:39.200 --> 00:45:42.210
That "TH" stands for the "Table Header."

00:45:42.210 --> 00:45:46.760
In my data cells, they all say "TDs," those
are my data cells.

00:45:46.760 --> 00:45:52.740
If you open your table editor and you don't
see the THs and the TDs, it's easy to make

00:45:52.740 --> 00:45:53.740
them appear.

00:45:53.740 --> 00:46:00.080
We right-click anywhere in this table, and
go to "Table Editor" options.

00:46:00.080 --> 00:46:05.670
You open you "Table Editor Options" and under
"Label Option," you have to choose cell type,

00:46:05.670 --> 00:46:07.970
TH or TD.

00:46:07.970 --> 00:46:11.010
If that box is checked, it will display the
cell types.

00:46:11.010 --> 00:46:14.550
If you uncheck it, they will disappear.

00:46:14.550 --> 00:46:19.610
I find it easier to evaluate a table with
them open, so I am going to check the label

00:46:19.610 --> 00:46:24.610
option box and look at my table.

00:46:24.610 --> 00:46:35.840
As we can see, there are no merged or split
cells, so this is an accessible table.

00:46:35.840 --> 00:46:41.890
It was accessible because we established the
headers in Word and we used our automatic

00:46:41.890 --> 00:46:42.890
formatting.

00:46:42.890 --> 00:46:44.620
That made things very easy for us.

00:46:44.620 --> 00:46:48.300
We didn't have any work to do at all in Adobe.

00:46:48.300 --> 00:46:54.850
Again, here's just some helpful screenshots
that go through the steps that we just followed.

00:46:54.850 --> 00:47:00.640
Now, we are going to take a look at a complex
table.

00:47:00.640 --> 00:47:05.770
This one isn't stunningly complex, but it
illustrates the point.

00:47:05.770 --> 00:47:12.950
You'll see here, I have three basic columns
-- habitat indicators, consider using variance

00:47:12.950 --> 00:47:16.390
and habitat suitability characteristics.

00:47:16.390 --> 00:47:23.270
My habitat suitability characteristics are
broken down into two sub-columns -- arid sites

00:47:23.270 --> 00:47:24.460
and mesic sites.

00:47:24.460 --> 00:47:26.370
This does not look like a problematic table.

00:47:26.370 --> 00:47:32.120
If I authored this in word and I didn't know
that Word had the limitations it has, I would

00:47:32.120 --> 00:47:33.980
think, "Well, this is pretty easy.

00:47:33.980 --> 00:47:35.920
Who can't read that?"

00:47:35.920 --> 00:47:40.790
Word doesn't give enough information for anyone
using assistive technology to be able to read

00:47:40.790 --> 00:47:42.080
this.

00:47:42.080 --> 00:47:44.490
We're going to fix this table and evaluate
it in Adobe.

00:47:44.490 --> 00:47:47.290
I'm going to open this up.

00:47:47.290 --> 00:47:51.130
The screenshots are nice, but they're boring.

00:47:51.130 --> 00:47:52.520
I'm going to go to "Tools" again.

00:47:52.520 --> 00:47:57.210
We're going to get out our Touch Up Reading
Order tool, go to "Accessibility."

00:47:57.210 --> 00:48:02.040
I'm going to open my Reading Order tool.

00:48:02.040 --> 00:48:07.210
Before we launch into this table, you see
how this paragraph above the table has little

00:48:07.210 --> 00:48:11.850
number one on it and the table has number
two?

00:48:11.850 --> 00:48:14.550
That is the reading order.

00:48:14.550 --> 00:48:18.350
This one is the first thing that assistive
technology is going to read.

00:48:18.350 --> 00:48:21.510
Two, the table is the second.

00:48:21.510 --> 00:48:26.090
When you use your Touch Up Reading Order tool,
all these little numbers will pop up as long

00:48:26.090 --> 00:48:32.970
as you tell it to display that option here.

00:48:32.970 --> 00:48:39.640
Now, we are going to open out table editor
and evaluate this complex table.

00:48:39.640 --> 00:48:42.170
I'm going to click on the number two.

00:48:42.170 --> 00:48:44.940
I see the blue.

00:48:44.940 --> 00:48:47.900
I can open my table editor.

00:48:47.900 --> 00:48:53.400
Now, I see my header cell say "TH, TH, TH."

00:48:53.400 --> 00:48:54.550
That's good, right?

00:48:54.550 --> 00:48:59.280
All my data cells say, "TD, TD, TD."

00:48:59.280 --> 00:49:00.280
It's good.

00:49:00.280 --> 00:49:02.020
Things aren't looking too bad.

00:49:02.020 --> 00:49:10.290
But, to make sure all of this data is associated
with the correct header, I have to open these

00:49:10.290 --> 00:49:14.080
data cells and see who they're connected to.

00:49:14.080 --> 00:49:17.630
To do that, I right-click on the data cell.

00:49:17.630 --> 00:49:20.420
I open "Table Cell Properties."

00:49:20.420 --> 00:49:24.490
I select that from this menu.

00:49:24.490 --> 00:49:32.720
Under "Table Cell Properties," I look down
under "Attributes." at the Associated Header

00:49:32.720 --> 00:49:34.630
Cell IDs.

00:49:34.630 --> 00:49:37.060
You'll see I have arid sites, that are correct.

00:49:37.060 --> 00:49:39.170
The data cell's under arid sites.

00:49:39.170 --> 00:49:42.790
Then I have habitat suitability characteristics.

00:49:42.790 --> 00:49:48.280
That is the other header that this data is
associated with, so that's correct.

00:49:48.280 --> 00:49:49.660
Let's take another look.

00:49:49.660 --> 00:49:53.530
I'm going to right-click on my data cell.

00:49:53.530 --> 00:49:57.560
I'm going to select "Table Cell Properties."

00:49:57.560 --> 00:50:01.110
I'm going to check out my attributes.

00:50:01.110 --> 00:50:09.250
I have arid sites under my associated header
cell IDs, and I have habitat suitability characteristics.

00:50:09.250 --> 00:50:10.580
Perfect.

00:50:10.580 --> 00:50:12.820
This table, it's accessible.

00:50:12.820 --> 00:50:18.670
It has split cells, but someone has obviously
done the work to establish what data goes

00:50:18.670 --> 00:50:20.090
with what header.

00:50:20.090 --> 00:50:22.980
Let's say that wasn't there, that information.

00:50:22.980 --> 00:50:30.620
You have to go through this and populate the
associated header cell IDs, but that's pretty

00:50:30.620 --> 00:50:31.620
easy.

00:50:31.620 --> 00:50:33.330
All you have to do is check this little plus
sign.

00:50:33.330 --> 00:50:40.700
Look, all my headers, they pop-up in the dropdown
menu under header ID.

00:50:40.700 --> 00:50:45.680
I just have to select the right headers from
my, this dropdown menu.

00:50:45.680 --> 00:50:49.650
I'm going to select "Arid Sites" and hit "OK."

00:50:49.650 --> 00:50:56.530
Now, I have to hit my plus sign again to go
get my "Add Table Header ID" box open again

00:50:56.530 --> 00:51:00.440
so I can select "Habitat Suitability Characteristics."

00:51:00.440 --> 00:51:05.420
I hit "OK."

00:51:05.420 --> 00:51:07.250
That's all it takes.

00:51:07.250 --> 00:51:12.560
You have to go in to all of these data cells
and make sure the data's associated with the

00:51:12.560 --> 00:51:14.770
right header.

00:51:14.770 --> 00:51:17.630
The author could have broken up this table.

00:51:17.630 --> 00:51:22.370
You could have had two tables -- one for arid
sites and one for mesic sites.

00:51:22.370 --> 00:51:26.080
Then you would have two simple tables, and
you wouldn't have any of that work to do.

00:51:26.080 --> 00:51:30.730
But, if you choose to merge them and create
a complex table, then this is what you have

00:51:30.730 --> 00:51:36.210
to do in Adobe, to create an accessible document.

00:51:36.210 --> 00:51:42.860
The Touch Up Reading Order Tool has a ton
of uses available.

00:51:42.860 --> 00:51:45.170
Again, remember these little numbers.

00:51:45.170 --> 00:51:47.940
These are our logical reading order numbers.

00:51:47.940 --> 00:51:56.990
As long as the page content order button is
selected here under show page content groups

00:51:56.990 --> 00:52:03.050
in your Touch Up Reading Order Tool, those
numbers will appear in your PDF.

00:52:03.050 --> 00:52:08.550
That is how you can manually check your reading
order, which is simple in a document like

00:52:08.550 --> 00:52:14.950
this, but if you have some beautiful, decorative
document, you have little things all over

00:52:14.950 --> 00:52:17.560
the place it might get a little more complicated.

00:52:17.560 --> 00:52:21.990
You'll definitely want to make sure that you
use the Touch Up Reading Order tool to check

00:52:21.990 --> 00:52:29.270
the numbering in your logical reading order.

00:52:29.270 --> 00:52:32.110
That seemed like a lot, it does move fast.

00:52:32.110 --> 00:52:37.240
Again, here are just some screenshots to carry
you through the document.

00:52:37.240 --> 00:52:41.030
Now, we're just going through some more screenshots.

00:52:41.030 --> 00:52:47.250
If you have a copy of this PowerPoint available
you can use this as a reference.

00:52:47.250 --> 00:52:51.410
Let's say you went to great pains in your
Word document to make it accessible.

00:52:51.410 --> 00:52:54.390
You used the accessibility checker the whole
time.

00:52:54.390 --> 00:52:56.470
You added Alt Text, you used Headings.

00:52:56.470 --> 00:53:00.480
You're really proud of yourself and now you're
ready.

00:53:00.480 --> 00:53:02.190
You've converted that to a PDF.

00:53:02.190 --> 00:53:03.960
You want to post it on the web.

00:53:03.960 --> 00:53:05.430
Well, there's one more step.

00:53:05.430 --> 00:53:10.790
You need to use the Adobe Accessibility Checker
to make sure you didn't miss anything.

00:53:10.790 --> 00:53:16.690
After all, it was a long, drawn-out experience.

00:53:16.690 --> 00:53:21.140
Let's see how we use the Adobe Accessibility
Checker just to make sure you didn't miss

00:53:21.140 --> 00:53:24.020
a tiny item here or there.

00:53:24.020 --> 00:53:28.190
Now, the Adobe Accessibility Checker, very
simple to use.

00:53:28.190 --> 00:53:30.790
I'm going to go to Tools again.

00:53:30.790 --> 00:53:35.860
Back to Accessibility, which we've been using
now for the last half an hour, and you'll

00:53:35.860 --> 00:53:42.010
see under my Accessibility Tools here I can
select Full Check.

00:53:42.010 --> 00:53:47.130
That is going to launch my Accessibility Checker
options and I am going to start checking.

00:53:47.130 --> 00:53:52.990
I'm going to click the Start Checking button
and now my Accessibility Checker results display

00:53:52.990 --> 00:53:56.050
on the left side of my screen.

00:53:56.050 --> 00:53:58.350
What do these mean?

00:53:58.350 --> 00:54:03.140
Under document, it says I have four issues,
so I'm going to expand and see what's the

00:54:03.140 --> 00:54:04.140
matter.

00:54:04.140 --> 00:54:06.360
I didn't set my primary language.

00:54:06.360 --> 00:54:12.200
This is easy because if you had a perfect
Word document and you save it as a PDF, you

00:54:12.200 --> 00:54:14.660
still have to set the language.

00:54:14.660 --> 00:54:19.860
But you know what's great about this is, if
let's say I forgot where to find it, all I

00:54:19.860 --> 00:54:26.620
have to do is right-click on the error in
the accessibility checker results, and select

00:54:26.620 --> 00:54:27.620
fix.

00:54:27.620 --> 00:54:32.070
When I do, a set reading language dialog box
opens up.

00:54:32.070 --> 00:54:39.330
Under language, it says English, so that's
good.

00:54:39.330 --> 00:54:41.380
I hit OK.

00:54:41.380 --> 00:54:47.000
You'll see here, it'll tell me if I need alternate
text and everything.

00:54:47.000 --> 00:54:52.030
We're not going to make this a perfect document
in the training itself.

00:54:52.030 --> 00:55:00.140
It's going to tell me what I've done wrong
or what I could have missed when I was re-mediating

00:55:00.140 --> 00:55:01.460
my document.

00:55:01.460 --> 00:55:03.500
That's it.

00:55:03.500 --> 00:55:05.320
That's it.

00:55:05.320 --> 00:55:12.930
That's the last piece of the Adobe accessibility
puzzle, for today anyway.

00:55:12.930 --> 00:55:14.330
It's not that bad.

00:55:14.330 --> 00:55:20.450
Once you get used to it and using these tools
every day, it will become second nature to

00:55:20.450 --> 00:55:21.450
you.

00:55:21.450 --> 00:55:26.680
The Accessibility Checker and the Touch-up
Reading Order Tool, all these things that

00:55:26.680 --> 00:55:31.630
we've been using, these are available in Adobe
Pro and Adobe DC.

00:55:31.630 --> 00:55:35.990
If you have just Adobe Reader, you're not
going to be able to use these.

00:55:35.990 --> 00:55:41.230
If you want to thoroughly evaluate a PDF for
accessibility, you would have to either get

00:55:41.230 --> 00:55:48.950
Adobe Pro or Adobe DC or get a co-worker to
check the document for you.

00:55:48.950 --> 00:55:50.740
You don't want to bother your co-workers like
that.

00:55:50.740 --> 00:55:56.910
Best to bother your supervisor, and get them
to buy you Adobe DC.

00:55:56.910 --> 00:56:04.060
What do you do if you have a deadline looming
and there's going to be a press release out,

00:56:04.060 --> 00:56:08.780
and you have this resource management plan,
and it's 600 pages, and it took forever?

00:56:08.780 --> 00:56:13.200
It's so complex, and they say, "You have to
publish this right now because the press release

00:56:13.200 --> 00:56:17.860
has to come out later today and we need a
link to it in the local newspaper."

00:56:17.860 --> 00:56:22.040
You open the document, and it's completely
inaccessible.

00:56:22.040 --> 00:56:27.210
It's terrible, and it's 600 pages long, and
there's no way you could possibly make it

00:56:27.210 --> 00:56:30.060
accessible before posting it online.

00:56:30.060 --> 00:56:33.750
But you know if you don't get it out before
this press release then you're going to have

00:56:33.750 --> 00:56:35.620
some really unhappy people.

00:56:35.620 --> 00:56:36.620
What do you do?

00:56:36.620 --> 00:56:46.690
Well, in an instance like that, it is acceptable
to post an Alternative Accessible Version.

00:56:46.690 --> 00:56:48.250
What is that?

00:56:48.250 --> 00:56:53.440
An Alternative Accessible Version is just
a different version of your document.

00:56:53.440 --> 00:56:57.420
Let's say, in our example with the resource
management plan, let's say we have a Word

00:56:57.420 --> 00:56:59.430
version that's accessible.

00:56:59.430 --> 00:57:05.370
You can just circulate the Word version along
with that inaccessible version.

00:57:05.370 --> 00:57:11.310
This is only for emergency use I would say.

00:57:11.310 --> 00:57:17.530
In the long run that original document, that
PDF post on your website, it should be made

00:57:17.530 --> 00:57:18.530
accessible.

00:57:18.530 --> 00:57:24.290
You should not have any inaccessible content
on your website, especially your public facing

00:57:24.290 --> 00:57:27.050
website.

00:57:27.050 --> 00:57:32.180
This can buy you a little bit time in an emergency.

00:57:32.180 --> 00:57:35.190
That basically concludes our training here.

00:57:35.190 --> 00:57:44.290
Now, I would like to show you just a quick
example of what it's like to read a very poorly

00:57:44.290 --> 00:57:47.150
formatted document using a screen reader.

00:57:47.150 --> 00:57:55.900
We're going to exit out of the PowerPoint
and turn up my volume here.

00:57:55.900 --> 00:58:02.840
You're going to here JAWS, it's Jobs Access
With Speech.

00:58:02.840 --> 00:58:04.020
OK.

00:58:04.020 --> 00:58:07.360
I've got my volume all set.

00:58:07.360 --> 00:58:12.370
Now, as I open these folders to navigate to
my document you're going to hear JAWS tell

00:58:12.370 --> 00:58:15.860
me where I am.

00:58:15.860 --> 00:58:18.220
[file path]

00:58:18.220 --> 00:58:32.410
Catherine: Yeah, that didn't take too long,
right?

00:58:32.410 --> 00:58:37.700
We're going to open a sample document that
is poorly formatted.

00:58:37.700 --> 00:58:42.860
[file path]

00:58:42.860 --> 00:58:50.610
Catherine: All right.

00:58:50.610 --> 00:58:51.690
This looks fine, right?

00:58:51.690 --> 00:58:56.470
It doesn't look like there's anything wrong
with it but let's see what the user experiences

00:58:56.470 --> 00:58:58.830
when reading this document with a screen reader.

00:58:58.830 --> 00:58:59.950
JAWS: Blank.

00:58:59.950 --> 00:59:00.950
Blank.

00:59:00.950 --> 00:59:01.950
Blank.

00:59:01.950 --> 00:59:02.950
Blank.

00:59:02.950 --> 00:59:06.300
Catherine: Now, if I can't see this document
I'm starting to wonder what's going on.

00:59:06.300 --> 00:59:07.300
JAWS: Blank.

00:59:07.300 --> 00:59:09.801
Catherine: What in the world did my coworker
just send me?

00:59:09.801 --> 00:59:11.320
Why are they wasting my time?

00:59:11.320 --> 00:59:12.530
JAWS: Blank.

00:59:12.530 --> 00:59:13.530
Table of contents.

00:59:13.530 --> 00:59:14.530
Catherine: Oh!

00:59:14.530 --> 00:59:15.530
OK, there's the content.

00:59:15.530 --> 00:59:16.530
There it was.

00:59:16.530 --> 00:59:17.610
There's a table of contents.

00:59:17.610 --> 00:59:19.550
Now, let's see what else I can find.

00:59:19.550 --> 00:59:20.550
JAWS: Blank.

00:59:20.550 --> 00:59:21.550
Blank.

00:59:21.550 --> 00:59:22.550
Blank.

00:59:22.550 --> 00:59:23.810
Section one colon project description narrative
three.

00:59:23.810 --> 00:59:26.820
Catherine: That didn't sound very good.

00:59:26.820 --> 00:59:27.820
What else is here?

00:59:27.820 --> 00:59:28.820
JAWS: Blank.

00:59:28.820 --> 00:59:30.070
A description of the proposed action three.

00:59:30.070 --> 00:59:31.070
Blank.

00:59:31.070 --> 00:59:33.920
[inaudible 59:30] for the proposed action
three.

00:59:33.920 --> 00:59:36.260
Catherine: Why is it doing this?

00:59:36.260 --> 00:59:42.850
Well, I'm going to reveal the document formatting
and you'll see just a whole bunch of paragraph

00:59:42.850 --> 00:59:45.300
markers and spaces and tabs.

00:59:45.300 --> 00:59:52.680
Someone has used hard returns and spaces and
tabs to emulate the look of a well structured

00:59:52.680 --> 00:59:54.070
document.

00:59:54.070 --> 00:59:59.820
Visually, you can't tell that this document
is so poorly formatted unless you have the

00:59:59.820 --> 01:00:02.460
document formatting revealed.

01:00:02.460 --> 01:00:06.910
When you're navigating this document with
a screen reader it's incredibly painful to

01:00:06.910 --> 01:00:07.910
read.

01:00:07.910 --> 01:00:08.910
JAWS: Blank.

01:00:08.910 --> 01:00:10.330
See alternatives considered.

01:00:10.330 --> 01:00:16.600
Catherine: Because there's no real formatting,
let's say I want to get to See Alternatives

01:00:16.600 --> 01:00:21.950
Considered I'm going to have to just scroll
down, down, down and listen to all this text

01:00:21.950 --> 01:00:23.990
until I get to that section.

01:00:23.990 --> 01:00:25.670
That's a long process.

01:00:25.670 --> 01:00:29.170
That's not what we want to do to people.

01:00:29.170 --> 01:00:32.510
Let's see how?

01:00:32.510 --> 01:00:38.370
[file path]

01:00:38.370 --> 01:00:46.530
Catherine: Let's open that same document but
with actual formatting.

01:00:46.530 --> 01:00:49.440
Let's see what that sounds like.

01:00:49.440 --> 01:00:52.720
[file path]

01:00:52.720 --> 01:00:56.410
Catherine: You see?

01:00:56.410 --> 01:01:00.270
This doesn't look that different than the
other one on its face but the experience is

01:01:00.270 --> 01:01:03.090
a lot different when you're reading the document
with a screen reader.

01:01:03.090 --> 01:01:04.290
JAWS: Table of contents.

01:01:04.290 --> 01:01:06.400
Catherine: That was so easy.

01:01:06.400 --> 01:01:10.200
All I had to do was hit the down arrow one
time and it told me I was at the table of

01:01:10.200 --> 01:01:11.200
contents.

01:01:11.200 --> 01:01:13.130
I didn't wonder what happened.

01:01:13.130 --> 01:01:16.230
It was easy to listen to.

01:01:16.230 --> 01:01:17.400
Let's see what else is here.

01:01:17.400 --> 01:01:18.400
JAWS: Link.

01:01:18.400 --> 01:01:19.830
Section one colon project description narrative
two.

01:01:19.830 --> 01:01:20.830
Link.

01:01:20.830 --> 01:01:22.370
A description of the proposed action two.

01:01:22.370 --> 01:01:28.820
Catherine: If you listen carefully you'll
hear it say "Link" before it reads the subsection

01:01:28.820 --> 01:01:29.820
title.

01:01:29.820 --> 01:01:31.500
JAWS: Link beneath for the proposed action
two.

01:01:31.500 --> 01:01:33.490
Link see alternatives consider three.

01:01:33.490 --> 01:01:34.490
Catherine: All right.

01:01:34.490 --> 01:01:35.490
Alternatives considered.

01:01:35.490 --> 01:01:37.140
That's the section I wanted remember.

01:01:37.140 --> 01:01:40.060
It's because, it's a link I'm just going to
hit enter.

01:01:40.060 --> 01:01:41.060
JAWS: Enter.

01:01:41.060 --> 01:01:42.100
Link, see alternatives.

01:01:42.100 --> 01:01:43.100
Consider three.

01:01:43.100 --> 01:01:44.100
Catherine: There I am.

01:01:44.100 --> 01:01:45.700
I'm right where I want to be.

01:01:45.700 --> 01:01:51.840
Page 315, alternatives considered and all
I had to do was use about four keystrokes,

01:01:51.840 --> 01:01:53.520
a couple of downs and an enter.

01:01:53.520 --> 01:01:55.670
I'm right where I wanted to be.

01:01:55.670 --> 01:01:58.750
That was very easy to navigate using a screen
reader.

01:01:58.750 --> 01:02:04.340
Now, getting to this point in the document,
when it was poorly formatted, would have taken

01:02:04.340 --> 01:02:08.750
probably, I don't know, 15 to 20 minutes to
find this.

01:02:08.750 --> 01:02:14.090
To scroll through all that useless content
or all those blanks and paragraphs and things

01:02:14.090 --> 01:02:15.630
like that.

01:02:15.630 --> 01:02:20.920
Please, when you're formatting your documents,
use the automatic features in word.

01:02:20.920 --> 01:02:25.330
You are going to make someone's user experience
so much better.

01:02:25.330 --> 01:02:26.360
JAWS: Notification open.

01:02:26.360 --> 01:02:27.360
Catherine: When you do that.

01:02:27.360 --> 01:02:28.360
JAWS: Dialogue.

01:02:28.360 --> 01:02:29.360
Up down slider 100.

01:02:29.360 --> 01:02:30.619
To increase or decrease use the arrow keys.

01:02:30.619 --> 01:02:35.740
Catherine: Now I'm going to silence JAWS here
while we wrap up.

01:02:35.740 --> 01:02:40.050
That is accessible, word and PDF documents
in a nutshell.

01:02:40.050 --> 01:02:45.890
Now, this isn't too advanced but if you follow
the instructions in this training, you will

01:02:45.890 --> 01:02:52.970
take care of like 99 percent of accessibility
issues and you will avoid all of the common

01:02:52.970 --> 01:02:59.460
mistakes that we find every day in our word
and PDF documents.

01:02:59.460 --> 01:03:04.060
Thank you and I'll turn this back to Sid.

01:03:04.060 --> 01:03:05.560
Sid: Thank you Catherine.

01:03:05.560 --> 01:03:07.450
This concludes the webinar.

01:03:07.450 --> 01:03:13.350
If you have any questions or require a copy
of the presentation please contact me, Sid

01:03:13.350 --> 01:03:15.860
Sharma or Catherine Emmett.

01:03:15.860 --> 01:03:18.570
Our contact information is on the slide thank
you.
9/27/2017
Last edited 9/28/2017