Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
Good afternoon, Chairman Young, Ranking Member Boren, and members of the Subcommittee. My name is Jodi Gillette. I am the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior (Department). Thank you for the opportunity to provide testimony on behalf of the Department on H.R. 2444, the Tribal Self-Governance Act of 2011.
H.R. 2444 seeks to amend both Title I and Title IV of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (ISDEAA or Act) (25 U.S.C. §§ 450 et seq.). The Administration strongly supports the principles of self-determination and self-governance, and consistent with this support we believe the ISDEAA should be strengthened to make it work better for the Federal government and for Indian tribal governments. Accordingly, the Administration supports H.R. 2444 as introduced.
President Obama recognizes that federally recognized Indian tribes are sovereign, self-governing political entities that have a government-to-government relationship with the United States, as expressly recognized in the United States Constitution. Secretary Salazar, too, is a strong supporter of the principle of tribal self-determination, the principles of the ISDEAA, and is committed to working to fully enable tribal self-governance.
In 1975, the Congress enacted the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (ISDEAA), Pub. L. No. 93-638, as amended (Title I). Title I allows a tribe to contract individual programs away from the Department of the Interior (Department) and let the tribe operate the programs. Title I also gives a tribe redesign and rebudgeting authority for Federal programs that it assumes.
In 1988, Congress enacted Title III of the ISDEAA as a demonstration project, which allowed an Indian tribe to contract several programs from the Department, and allowed Indian tribes to reallocate funds and redesign those programs to best benefit their communities. In 1994, Congress made the demonstration project permanent in Title IV of the ISDEAA, Pub. L. No. 103-413.
Title IV provides resources to Indian tribes, enabling them to plan, conduct, consolidate, and administer programs, services, functions, and activities for tribal citizens according to priorities established by their tribal governments. Under Title I and Title IV, Indian tribes have greater control and flexibility in the use of these funds, reduced reporting requirements, and the authority to redesign or consolidate programs, services, functions, and activities. In addition, Title I and Title IV allow Indian tribes to reallocate funds during the year and carry over unexpended funds into the next fiscal year without Secretarial approval. As a result, these funds can be used with more flexibility to address each Indian tribe's unique condition.
Funding agreements under the ISDEAA have helped to strengthen government-to-government relationships with Indian tribes. Self-determination and self-governance tribes have been good managers of the programs they have undertaken. Many times, tribal governments add their own resources to the programs and are able to fashion programs to meet their needs and the particular needs of their members. Tribal governments are often better suited than the Federal government to address the changing needs of their members. Indian tribal governments have often observed that, when they are working under self-determination contracts and self-governance funding agreements, they are not viewed by the Federal government as just another Federal contractor, but rather that their work reflects a true government-to-government relationship characterized by mutually agreed-to responsibilities and tribal empowerment.
For nearly a decade, Indian tribes have tried to update Title I and Title IV to address various issues, to include more non-BIA programs and to streamline the process of negotiating annual funding agreements. The Department recognizes the need for the self-determination and self-governance programs to evolve to improve and increase the frequency of funding agreements. The Administration is proud to report that, after a series of negotiations that began in early 2011 with tribal stakeholders, we have reached agreement on a number of issues and the language agreed upon is embodied in H.R. 2444.
Our agreement on this critical legislative priority for Indian County reflects the Administration's commitment to restore the integrity of the government-to-government relationship with Tribal Nations. The Native American communities in this country confront many challenges, and this Administration is committed to working with Tribal Nations to create opportunities for all of our communities to thrive and flourish. We believe that H.R. 2444 goes a long way toward this goal.
This concludes my prepared statement. I will be happy to answer any questions the Subcommittee may have.