Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
National Parks and Public Lands Bills: Katharine H. Stevenson
KATHARINE H. STEVENSON,
ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, BUSINESS SERVICES,
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE,
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS
AND THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON PUBLIC LANDS AND FORESTS
OF THE SENATE ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES COMMITTEE,
CONCERNING S. 3524 AND H.R. 4438, BILLS
CONCERNING A NEW PARK HEADQUARTERS,
A BOUNDARY EXPANSION,
AND A STUDY OF
POTENTIAL LAND ACQUISITIONS
AT SAN ANTONIO MISSIONS NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK
SEPTEMBER 29, 2010
Mr. Chairman and members of the Subcommittees, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to present the Department of the Interior's views on S. 3524 and H.R. 4438, bills concerning a new park headquarters, a boundary expansion, and a study of potential land acquisitions at San Antonio Missions National Historical Park.
The Department supports S. 3524. On February 25, 2010, the Department testified on H.R. 4438 before the House Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands. At that hearing we stated that that we supported the bill, but that we would like to work with the committee to address ambiguities in the portions of H.R. 4438 that directed the Secretary to enter into a lease agreement for the operation of a park headquarters and operational facility. H.R. 4438 as passed by the House does not include the authority to operate the headquarters facility, which we believe is a critically important component of this legislation. S. 3524 addresses our concerns by authorizing the use of a cooperative agreement, instead of a lease, for this facility.
S. 3524 and H.R. 4438 would amend Section 201 of Public Law 95-629 to direct the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) to conduct a study of lands in Bexar and Wilson Counties to identify lands that would be appropriate to include within the boundaries of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park (Park). The Secretary is directed to report on the findings of the study three years after funds are made available. S. 3524 also authorizes the Secretary to enter into a cooperative agreement with the City of San Antonio, or its designee, for operation of a facility outside the boundary of the park to provide visitor facilities and office space for a headquarters and operational support for the park. Funding for the cooperative agreement would be subject to appropriations. Finally, under both bills, the boundary of the park would be expanded by approximately 151 acres.
San Antonio Missions National Historical Park preserves a significant link to Mexico and Spain that has influenced the culture and history of the United States since before its inception. San Antonio is now the seventh largest and third fastest growing city in the United States. The city grew 68 percent between 1980 and 2007 and now almost entirely surrounds the Park with urban development, threatening areas that contain significant Spanish colonial resources historically associated with the Park.
Park headquarters for San Antonio Missions are currently inadequate; do not meet fire, safety or security standards; and exist in an expired lease space not adjacent to the Park. The Park's
maintenanceoperations are dispersed in three separate locations. The Park's curatorial collection, which contains almost one million Spanish Colonial period objects, is stored in four different locations, including two locations that do not meet National Park Service (NPS) Curatorial Storage Standards.
The City of San Antonio, Texas (City) has acquired lands adjacent to Mission San José and has proposed a partnership with the Park and one of its partners for the construction of a park headquarters. A cooperative agreement, such as the one described in S. 3524, would provide the NPS with the ability to enter into an agreement with the City or an entity of the City's choosing such as Los Compadres de San Antonio Missions National Historical Park (Los Compadres), to assist with operation of visitor facilities and office space for a park headquarters.
S. 3524 and H.R. 4438 would also expand the boundary of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park by approximately 151 acres, of which 118 acres are either currently owned by the NPS, are being donated, or are being transferred through a land exchange to the Park. All costs associated with the land exchange will be paid for by the San Antonio River Authority with the NPS only paying for minimal transaction costs. Thirty-three acres would either be purchased by the NPS from willing sellers or donated to the Park. It is estimated that the acquisition of these 33 acres could cost as much as $3,587,110 and operational costs associated with adding the 151 acres of land are not expected to exceed $100,000 per year. Associated land acquisition funding requests would be subject to the Administration's prioritization process that uses consistent and merit-based criteria to select projects, and the availability of appropriations.
The Park's General Management Plan and Land Protection Plan acknowledge that the current boundary is insufficient to fully achieve the Park's purpose. The Park's most recent feasibility study recommended a much larger area to best protect the cultural resources associated with the Park. Numerous areas that contain significant Spanish colonial resources historically associated with the Park still remain outside the boundary. In addition, the Park has acquired lands that are outside the current boundary and is in the process of accepting additional lands that will be included within the boundary as a part of a land exchange with the San Antonio River Authority and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to facilitate restoration of the San Antonio River.
S. 3524 and H.R. 4438 would also authorize the Secretary to conduct a study of lands within Bexar and Wilson counties, in the State of Texas, to identify lands that would be suitable for inclusion within the boundaries of the Park. The study should also explore management alternatives that would best ensure public access, preservation, protection, and interpretation of the Missions. We estimate that this study will cost approximately $350,000.
This legislation enjoys the strong support of officials from Bexar County, Wilson County, the City of San Antonio, the City of Floresville, the San Antonio River Authority, the San Antonio Conservation Society, Los Compadres, and others. It would help guarantee the preservation, protection, restoration, and interpretation of the missions for current and future generations.
Mr. Chairman, that concludes my prepared remarks. I would be happy to answer any questions you or any other members of the Subcommittees may have.