Mercury's surface in "enhanced color," a color scheme created to emphasize color differences. This is not what Mercury would look like to the human eye, but by applying mathematical analysis to images, color differences can be accentuated beyond those visible to a person.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
DEPUTY DIRECTOR, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS
OF THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES
CONCERNINGS. 3247, TO PROVIDE FOR THE DESIGNATION
OF THE RIVER RAISIN NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD PARK
IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN
July 30, 2008
Mr. Chairman, thank you for the opportunity to present the views of the Department of the Interior on S. 3247, a bill to provide for the designation of the River Raisin National Battlefield Park in the State of Michigan.
At this time, the Department recommends deferring action on S. 3247. Our recommendation does not detract from the significance and importance of this battlefield site and the historical events associated with this major engagement of the War of 1812. We believe that the special resource study and the national historic landmark nomination currently underway should be completed so a determination can be made if the site is nationally significant and is both suitable and feasible to be designated as a unit of the National Park System.
S. 3247 directs the Secretary of the Interior to accept the donation of real property from willing landowners in Monroe or Wayne Counties, Michigan, relating to the Battles of the River Raisin and their aftermath. If sufficient acreage to permit efficient administration is donated, the Secretary shall designate the acquired land as a unit of the National Park System. The new unit would be known as the "River Raisin National Battlefield Park."
Public Law 109-429, signed by President Bush on December 20, 2006, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to complete a special resource study of sites relating to the Battles of the River Raisin on January 18 and 22, 1813 and their aftermath. The study would provide alternatives for the appropriate way to preserve, to protect, and to interpret these sites and resources. Those alternatives would include recommendations on whether the area could be included as a new unit or part of an existing unit of the National Park System, or if the Federal government is the most appropriate entity to manage the site.
The National Park Service has begun work on the special resource study and preliminary evaluation indicates that the site would qualify as a national historic landmark. There is intact archaeological evidence of the site; and archaeologists within the National Park Service's Battlefield Protection Program say that if the archaeology is preserved, the site has impressive integrity as a battlefield.
We believe the study process should be allowed to continue in tandem with the national historic nomination. With public involvement, these two efforts will provide needed information to determine the best path for preservation and interpretation of the battlefield. We expect both to be completed in 2-3 years from now.
The battles of the River Raisin were among the largest and most tragic engagements of the War of 1812. They were fought where the River Raisin enters Lake Erie at Frenchtown, or present day Monroe. Only 33 of the 934 American soldiers who fought in the battles escaped death or capture. The massacre of wounded soldiers by Indians on January 23, 1813, shocked people throughout the Northwest Territories. This was later known as the "Massacre of the River Raisin."
The River Raisin was left a desolate, nearly abandoned settlement for eight months following the massacre. It was liberated on September 27, 1813, when Colonel Richard M. Johnson's Kentucky cavalry, led by men from the River Raisin, rode into the settlement. Although the British could not return, destruction was so severe that the River Raisin settlement remained desolate and impoverished for five years after the battle.
Until recently, the site of the main battlefield was occupied by an abandoned paper mill and listed as a brownfield site. However, the city of Monroe has received $1 million in grants and loans from the Clean Michigan Initiative and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality to remove the structures and mitigate any polluted soils. An archaeologist monitored the removal and cleanup activities at the site, which has recently been transferred to public ownership.
That concludes my testimony. I would be happy to answer any questions you or other members of the subcommittee may have.