Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
ACTING ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, BUSINESS SERVICES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
BEFORE THESUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS
OF THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES,
CONCERNING S. 1993 AND H.R. 2197,
TO MODIFY THE BOUNDARY OF HOPEWELL CULTURE
NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK IN THE STATE OF OHIO
April 9, 2008
Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to present the views of the Department of the Interior on S. 1993 and H.R. 2197, bills to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to modify the boundary of Hopewell Culture National Historical Park (NHP) at the Seip Earthworks unit to conform with recognizable property lines and landscape features, and to add the Spruce Hill Works unit to the park.
The Department supports S. 1993 and H.R. 2197 as passed by the House. S. 1993 and H.R. 2197 authorize the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) to modify the boundaries of Hopewell Culture NHP and acquire lands only from willing sellers.
Spruce Hill is an interesting and unique monumental ceremonial archeological site built approximately 2,000 years ago by the Ohio Hopewell culture. The site encloses the top of a hill on the edge of the Appalachian Plateau and overlooks Paint Creek near the town of Bourneville in Ross County, Ohio. Of the forty or more large monumental Hopewell culture earthworks, less than a dozen are hilltop enclosures. Spruce Hill is one of the larger examples of a hilltop site; its walls enclose 140 acres. It is one of three Hopewellian earthwork sites in the Eastern Woodlands where stone is used to construct its enclosing walls. It also is the only hilltop enclosure in the extensive complex of Hopewell earthworks in the Scioto valley around modern-day Chillicothe. All of the other sites in the vicinity are built on the valley floors. The site also has "enigmatic iron pit furnaces," which continue to generate ardent discussions among archeologists.
The interest in preserving the Spruce Hill Works dates back to the 1970s. In 1972, the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 1980, Public Law 96-607 added a threatened earthwork site to the park and called on the Secretary to study other Ohio Hopewell culture sites and recommend sites for inclusion in the park. Spruce Hill was considered in this comprehensive study; however, since there had been limited modern archeology done at the site, Spruce Hill was recommended for further study. As a result, when Public Law 102-294 established Hopewell Culture National Historical Park by combining the existing Mound City Group National Monument with three new units, it directed the Secretary to study several other prehistoric Hopewell culture sites as potential additions to the park, including Spruce Hill.
Between 1995 and 1998, NPS archeologists were allowed access to Spruce Hill by the landowner. They conducted investigations and prepared preliminary findings and a summary report by 1998. This report found the site significant and suitable for addition to the park. The report concluded that Spruce Hill is an outstanding example of a particular type of Hopewell culture monumental architecture, the hilltop enclosure, of which about a dozen are known and only one other, Fort Ancient State Memorial, a National Historic Landmark, compares to it in size. The site also is associated with early developments in American archeology and specifically with discussions of the origin and builders of the monumental earthworks in the eastern United States. The site has important natural resources as well, including vernal pools, breeding habitat for grassland birds whose populations are in decline in Ohio, and will help preserve the watershed of Paint Creek, a stream designated as Outstanding State Waters. The site offers outstanding opportunities to yield important scientific information on Hopewell hilltop sites, a type of feature that has not been well studied and is not represented in the park.
The estimated land acquisition cost for the Spruce Hill site is $450,000 to $600,000. The property was purchased on June 12, 2007 by a coalition of local and national conservation groups headed by the Arc of Appalachia Preserve and the Archaeological Conservancy. These partners are willing sellers. One of the partners, the Arc of Appalachia Preserve, is interested in holding the property outside of the earthworks and managing the site cooperatively with the NPS. This would reduce the acquisition cost for the government. Public facilities, including parking, hiking trails, and wayside exhibits, would be relatively inexpensive, with visitor center and museum needs being served by the Seip Earthworks unit. The cost to develop these facilities would be approximately $250,000. The Ross County Parks Department has expressed an interest in cooperating with the development of these facilities. However, Federal funding for any new land acquisition and development would be subject to the budget prioritization process of the National Park Service.
S. 1993 and H.R. 2197 authorize boundary adjustments at the Seip Earthworks unit, allowing for alignment of the boundaries with features that are readily recognizable such as streams and fence lines. The boundary changes also would help preserve additional riparian habitat along Paint Creek, and forestall the need to surplus excess lands and provide easements across or near the principle resource of the park. Most of the land in the proposed boundary modification at the Seip earthwork has already been purchased by the Federal government as uneconomical remnants or is owned by the Ohio Historical Society. These changes would provide more opportunities for research into habitation and craft production archeological sites and provide the earthwork remains with a greater buffer. Also, inclusion of all of the Ohio Historical Society-owned land at Seip Mound State Memorial would facilitate joint management agreements with the Society. The estimated cost to purchase the remaining private properties is $250,000 to $300,000. These properties would be purchased from willing sellers.
Passage of S. 1993 and H.R. 2197 would allow the National Park Service to preserve these unique earthworks,a distinctive form of ceremonialism and monumental architecture that involved constructing long earthen walls to enclose very large spaces. These earthworks, developed by an American Indian culture in the Ohio River valley around 200 B.C. to A.D. 500, form a significantexample of our nation's heritage.
That concludes my statement. I would be glad to answer any questions that you or other members of the subcommittee might have.