Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, VISITOR AND RESOURCE PROTECTION, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE,
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS, FORESTS, AND PUBLIC LANDS
OF THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON NATURAL RESOURCES,
CONCERNING H.R. 3821,
TO AUTHORIZE THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
TO CONDUCT A SPECIAL RESOURCE STUDY OF SITES AND RESOURCES
AT MATEWAN, WEST VIRGINIA,
ASSOCIATED WITH THE BATTLE OF MATEWAN
TO DETERMINE THE SUITABILITY AND FEASIBILITY
OF DESIGNATING CERTAIN HISTORIC AREAS
AS A UNIT OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM.
October 30, 2007
Mr. Chairman, thank you for the opportunity to present the views of the Department of the Interior on H.R. 3821, a bill to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a special resource study of sites associated with the "Battle of Matewan" in Matewan, West Virginia.
The Department supports H.R. 3821. While the Department supports the authorization of this study, we also believe that any funding requested should be directed first toward completing previously authorized studies.
H.R. 3821 directs the Secretary to conduct a special resource study in accordance with the National Park System General Authorities Act to determine the suitability and feasibility of designating these resources in West Virginia as a unit of the National Park System and to determine the methods and means for protection and interpretation by the Federal Government or other governmental or non-governmental entities. The bill also requires the Secretary to submit a report to Congress no later than 3 years after the date on which funds are made available to carry out this study.
The Matewan Historic District was designated a National Historic Landmark in February 1997. The District and its surrounding coal mines were the sites of a seminal event in the history of organized labor fostered by attempts of coal miners in the southern Appalachians to join the United Mine Workers of America in 1920.
Nowhere was the effort at unionization more intense than in Matewan, where the local sheriff, Sid Hatfield, and the town's mayor Cabel Testerman, openly protected the miners attempts to hold organizational meetings in the town. On May 19, 1920, thirteen detectives including Thomas Felts, President of Baldwin-Felts Coal Company, and two of his brothers, entered Matewan to evict unionized miners and their families from homes in the Stone Mountain Mine camp. Sheriff Hatfield and a group of miners went to the Stone Mountain camp and tried to stop the evictions, but the detectives and mine owner continued forcing miners and their families from the homes. Later that afternoon in Matewan, Hatfield and a number of armed miners attempted to arrest the mine owner. A shot was fired and a battle ensued. Lasting only a minute, the mine owner, the mayor, seven detectives and two miners were dead or dying at the end of the confrontation. Hatfield, unhurt, became a hero to miners throughout the nation. West Virginia's governor sent in 50 members of the State Police to take control of the town. In July 1921, while unarmed, Sheriff Hatfield was shot and killed at a county courthouse by Baldwin-Felts' detectives. His death sparked an armed rebellion by coal miners all over West Virginia resulting in the "Battle of Blair Mountain" in Logan County.
The Battle of Blair Mountain in August 1921 is considered the largest organized armed uprising in the history of the American labor movement and ultimately resulted in many of the laws thatprotect labor's right to organize today. Up to 15,000 coal miners gathered in Logan County, West Virginia and stood against state and federal troops. Up to 30 persons on both sides died on August 25th. On September 2nd, the United States Army Air Service dropped pipe and tear gas bombs to dissuade labor organizers from further action. In the history of this nation it was the first and only time that the United States Government ordered military aircraft used against its citizens.
Resources related to this period are still extant in the Town of Matewan and its surrounding areas. The National Park Service assisted the Matewan Revitalization Task Force to develop a strategic plan for the area's resources in 1990. Matewan's nationally significant resources are now included in the congressionally designated National Coal Heritage Area.
Mr. Chairman this concludes my testimony and I would be pleased to answer any questions you or the other members of the subcommittee may have.