Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
H.R. 205, HELPING EXPEDITE AND ADVANCE RESPONSIBLE TRIBAL HOME OWNERSHIP ACT
NOVEMBER 3, 2011
Good afternoon Mr. Chairman and members of the Subcommittee. My name is Mike Black and I am the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) at the Department of the Interior (Department). I am pleased to be here today to present the Department's views regarding H.R. 205, the Helping Expedite and Advance Responsible Tribal Homeownership Act (HEARTH Act).
This Administration continues to support tribal self-determination, and we recognize that tribal control over tribal resources is intrinsic to this policy.
We understand that tribal homelands are essential to the health, safety, and welfare of the First Americans, and that it is important for Indian tribes to have the ability to determine how their homelands will be utilized. This is why the Department is in the process of revising our own regulations governing leasing on Indian lands. Our revisions will streamline the process by which leases of Indian lands are approved, thereby promoting homeownership, economic development, and renewable energy development on tribal lands.
The HEARTH Act is consistent with this effort, and we are pleased to strongly support this legislation. H.R. 205 would amend certain sections of 25 U.S.C. § 415 (the Indian Long-Term Leasing Act) which would restore tribal authority to govern leasing on tribal lands, for those tribes that wish to exercise that authority. Under this legislation, willing tribes would initially submit their own leasing regulations to the Secretary of the Interior for approval. Following Secretarial approval of such leasing regulations, tribal governments would process leases for tribal trust land at the tribal level, pursuant to their own laws, without a requirement for further approval of the Secretary. This has the potential to significantly reduce the time it takes to approve leases for homes and small businesses.
Pursuant to the HEARTH Act, leases would be limited to an initial term of 25 years, but could be renewed for up to two additional terms of up to 25 years each. Tribes could also approve leases for public, religious, educational, recreational, or residential purposes for a term of up to 75 years where permitted by tribal regulations. Tribal leasing regulations would not apply to mineral leases or leases of individual Indian allotments.
As noted above, under H.R. 205, tribes that desire to develop and implement their own regulations governing leasing would be able to submit tribal regulations for approval by the Secretary of the Interior. The Secretary would be required to approve tribal regulations that are consistent with the Department's own regulations governing leasing on Indian lands. The HEARTH Act requires the Department to review tribal leasing regulations within 120 days, but does provide us with the flexibility to extend this time period in consultation with the affected tribe.
The HEARTH Act ensures that the Department will retain the authority to fulfill its trust obligation to protect tribal trust lands through the enforcement or cancellation of leases approved under tribal regulations, or the rescission of Secretarial approval of tribal leasing regulations, where appropriate. At the same time, the HEARTH Act ensures that the United States will not be liable for losses incurred as a result of leases approved under tribal leasing regulations.
We anticipate that the HEARTH Act will ultimately reduce the costs of implementing tribal leasing programs for the federal government by allowing willing Tribes to assume control of leasing on tribal lands. By increasing efficiency in the implementation of tribal leasing programs, the HEARTH Act will go a great distance in promoting homeownership, economic development, and renewable energy development by restoring tribal authority over tribal lands. The Department strongly supports H.R. 205, and I look forward to working with this Subcommittee in continued support of Indian tribes.
Thank you for the opportunity to present testimony on H.R. 205. I will be happy to answer any questions you may have.