Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
H.R. 1980 - National Parks, Forest and Lands Bills
STATEMENT FOR THE RECORD, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, BEFORE THE HOUSE SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS, FORESTS AND PUBLIC LANDS, COMMITTEE ON NATURAL RESOURCES, CONCERNING H.R. 1980, A BILL TO AUTHORIZE THE GOLD STAR MOTHERS NATIONAL MONUMENT FOUNDATION TO ESTABLISH A NATIONAL MONUMENT IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
November 3, 2011
Mr. Chairman, thank you for the opportunity to appear before your committee to present the views of the Department of the Interior on H.R 1980, a bill that would authorize the Gold Star Mothers National Monument Foundation to establish a national monument in the District of Columbia.
The Department cannot support H.R. 1980 because it does not conform to the Commemorative Works Act. This position is consistent with the finding of the National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission, which reported its views to the House Committee on Natural Resources on August 17, 2011.
This bill proposes to both establish a national monument to mothers of members of the Armed Forces who have died in the service to our country, and to designate the monument as a unit of the National Park System. H.R. 1980 also directs that the monument be established according to the requirements of the Commemorative Works Act of 1986.
The Department appreciated the opportunity to discuss the proposal with the Gold Star Mothers National Monument Foundation when it met with National Park Service staff and the National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission. Of course we believe that recognition of the role of mothers of members of the Armed Forces is important. We also believe that commemoration should be accomplished in a manner consistent with the Commemorative Works Act as enacted by Congress. We also note that the Gold Star program itself is a commemorative program. It is to recognize and honor those who have sacrificed their lives in service to our Country, as well as their mothers. Memorials are not always bricks and mortar. The Gold Star program is an excellent example, and it is a commemoration that has endured in various ways for almost a century.
H.R. 1980 is in conflict with the Commemorative Works Act in two key areas. First, the Act states that a military commemorative work may be authorized only to commemorate a war or similar major military conflict, such as the Korean War, or a branch of the armed forces, such as the Navy Memorial. Secondly, the Act permits consideration of memorials only if the last surviving member of the group being commemorated has been dead for 25 years.
While the proposed commemoration is outside the scope of the Commemorative Works Act, other suitable options to honor the Gold Star Mothers could be explored.
The Department also notes that the legislation directs that the memorial be established as a unit of the National Park System. Ordinarily, the National Park Service does not recommend such designation without first conducting a Congressionally-authorized Special Resource Study to determine if the resource warrants designation as a national park.
We further note that H.R. 1980 does not contain language providing for the disposition of unspent funds that may be privately raised for a memorial. The Department recommends legislative sponsors include such provisions in proposals to establish memorials regardless of the proposed location. Should the committee choose to advance this legislation in some form, the Department would encourage consideration of language to provide direction regarding unspent funds and we can assist the committee with suggested language.
That concludes our prepared testimony on H.R. 1980, and we would be happy to answer any questions you may have.