Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, PARK PLANNING, FACILITIES, AND LANDS,
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE,
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS
OF THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES
CONCERNING S. 3168,
A BILL TO AUTHORIZE THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
TO ACQUIRE CERTAIN NON-FEDERAL LAND IN THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA
FOR INCLUSION IN THE FORT NECESSITY NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD.
May 19, 2010
Mr. Chairman, thank you for the opportunity to present the Department of the Interior's views on S. 3168, a bill to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to acquire certain non-Federal land in Pennsylvania for inclusion in the Fort Necessity National Battlefield.
The Department supports the enactment of this legislation with amendments. Acquisition of the property, however, would be dependent on the results of an appraisal of its value, future availability of funding, and National Park Service acquisition priorities.
S. 3168 authorizes the acquisition of approximately 157 acres in Farmington, Pennsylvania. Upon acquisition, it further authorizes a boundary adjustment for Fort Necessity National Battlefield. The property contains traces of the historic Braddock Road and other resources.
Fort Necessity National Battlefield was the site of the first battle of the French and Indian War in July 1754. The war's outcome determined that the British, rather than the French, would control the Forks of the Ohio and, therefore, development of the colonies. Leading troops as a then-young lieutenant colonel in the Virginia Regiment, this battle was future General George Washington's first and only surrender.
The existing authorized boundary of Fort Necessity National Battlefield contains traces of the Braddock Road, built in 1755 as part of British Major General Edward Braddock's unsuccessful and bloody campaign to take Fort Duquesne at the Forks of the Ohio, a campaign during which Washington served as a volunteer aide to General Braddock. Washington had originally blazed this road in his 1754 expedition.
The property that is the subject of S. 3168 contains both historical and landscape resources relating to the purpose of Fort Necessity National Battlefield.If acquired, approximately 500 feet of the historic Braddock Road trace would be added to the park and would adjoin the existing portion of the trace within the current boundary.
An archeological site, dating approximately from the period of the 1770s to 1810s, is located on the subject property.Taverns were constructed along the Braddock Road following the American Revolution, but prior to the construction of the National Road. The property contains archeological remains of a former tavern structure and associated outbuildings and landscape. The property is contiguous to the park's current southeastern boundary and is becoming increasingly important as development pressures impact areas immediately adjacent to the park. The owner of the property is a willing seller.
We would like to like to work with the Committee to develop amendments that would provide a more precise identification of the land that would be authorized for acquisition and to make some minor technical changes.
Mr. Chairman, that concludes my testimony. I would be pleased to answer any questions from members of the Committee.