Mercury's surface in "enhanced color," a color scheme created to emphasize color differences. This is not what Mercury would look like to the human eye, but by applying mathematical analysis to images, color differences can be accentuated beyond those visible to a person.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
ACTING ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, BUSINESS SERVICES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
BEFORE THESUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS
OF THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES,
CONCERNING S. 1633 TO AUTHORIZE THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
TO CONDUCT A SPECIAL RESOURCE STUDY
TO DETERMINE THE SUITABILITY AND FEASIBILITY
OF INCLUDING THE BATTLEFIELD AND RELATED SITES
OF THE BATTLE OF SHEPHERDSTOWN IN SHEPHERDSTOWN, WEST VIRGINIA,
AS PART OF HARPERS FERRY NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK
OR ANTIETAM NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD
April 9, 2008
Mr. Chairman, thank you for the opportunity to present the views of the Department of the Interior on S. 1633, a bill to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a special resource study to determine the suitability and feasibility of including the battlefields and related sites of the Battle of Shepherdstown in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, as part of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park or Antietam National Battlefield in the National Park System.
The Department supports S. 1633. However, the Department feels that priority should be given to the 32 previously authorized studies for potential units of the National Park System, potential new National Heritage Areas, and potential additions to the National Trails System and National Wild and Scenic River System that have not yet been transmitted to the Congress.
S. 1633 would authorize the Secretary to carry out a special resource study to determine the national significance of the Shepherdstown battlefield and related sites in Shepherdstown, West Virginia associated with the Civil War. The study would examine whether the area could be included in the Harpers Ferry National Historical Park or the Antietam National Battlefield. The bill also requires the Secretary to submit a report to Congress no later than 3 years after the date on which funds are made available to carry out this study.
General Robert E. Lee invaded the North, with the intention of bringing Maryland into the Confederacy. Lee had a number of strategic reasons for the move. First, Lee's troops were in much need of military aid and supplies and Maryland's lands were rich in crops and untouched by battle. Second, Lee saw Maryland as a stepping stone to Pennsylvania, where he could draw the Union Army into a battle on ground of his own choosing. He could then threaten the cities of Washington, Baltimore, and Philadelphia and perhaps end the war in a short time. Finally, General Lee hoped that another Confederate victory, this time on Union soil, might also persuade Great Britain and France to grant diplomatic recognition to the South.
As he had done before, Lee divided his army and sent "Stonewall" Jackson in to capture the Federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, with its huge store of supplies. But the people of Maryland looked on the hungry troops as invaders who had come to plunder their land. Another unfortunate thing happened. A Union private was resting near Frederick, Maryland and noticed an envelope in the grass. It was a copy of General Lee's order to his generals outlining his plans. The paper was soon in the hands of General George B. McClellan.
The Battle of Shepherdstown, also known as the Battle of Boteler's Ford, was fought on September 19 and 20, 1862. There were over 600 casualties. General Lee had moved most of his army back across the Potomac River into Virginia leaving 44 cannons to form an artillery reserve to protect the vital crossing point on the Potomac. General McClellan had given orders to pursue the enemy across the Potomac. In the confusion of battle, General Lee received an erroneous report that his cannons had been captured. Reacting to this misinformation, the Confederates sent a force back to recover the artillery. In the skirmish that followed on the bluffs of the Potomac, a large number of inexperienced Union troops with faulty equipment were killed. This convinced General McClellan that the Confederate Army was still full of fight and he decided to delay any further effort to pursue until reinforced. The battle was considered a Confederate victory.
The Battle of Shepherdstown was the final engagement of the Maryland Campaign of 1862 that included the battles of Harpers Ferry, South Mountain, and Antietam and ended the Confederacy's first invasion of the North. The National Park Service has provided information and interpretation on the Shepherdstown site at Harpers Ferry National Historical Parkand Antietam National Battlefield for over 20 years.
A special resource study would provide alternatives for the appropriate way to preserve, to protect, and to interpret the Battle of Shepherdstown sites and resources. We estimate that the costs of completing this study would be approximately $250,000 to $300,000.
That concludes my testimony. I would be happy to answer any questions you or other members