Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior
Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee
Subcommittee on PublicLands and Forests
S. 3313, Sloan Hills Withdrawal Act
June 16, 2010
Thank you for the opportunity to testify on S. 3313, the Sloan Hills Withdrawal Act.
S. 3313 would withdraw approximately 640 acres of BLM-administered public land in Clark County, Nevada, from all forms of location, entry, and patent under the mining laws, and from disposition under all laws pertaining to mineral and geothermal leasing or mineral material sales, subject to valid existing rights.The BLM is presently preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for two proposed competitive mineral material sales which would result in two open pit limestone quarries in this area, as required by settlement agreements between the BLM and two mining companies.Since the BLM is still in the process of analyzing the proposed sales, we defer taking a position on this legislation.However, if this area is legislatively withdrawn, the BLM would recommend a boundary adjustment to include additional acreage to the withdrawal area.
The Sloan Hills area is located approximately 15 miles south of the City of Las Vegas, and consists of approximately 800 acres of BLM-administered public lands.The area is surrounded by public lands that are within the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act (SNPLMA) boundary.The SNPLMA allows the BLM to sell land within this disposal boundary and use the sale proceeds to acquire lands elsewhere in Nevada that possess higher natural resource values.When Congress expanded the SNPLMA disposal boundary in 2002 (through PL 107-282), the Sloan Hills area was not included.
The Sloan Hills area has an extensive mineral development history.Separate, but overlapping mining claims were filed on the site almost thirty years ago, with little development occurring until the early 1990s. The two mining claimants in the area subleased their claims to CEMEX (formerly Rinker Materials West, LLC) and Service Rock Products Corp. (Service Rock).CEMEX subsequently filed a mining plan of operations.When the BLM receives a plan of operations for materials that may be common variety minerals and the mining claims were located on or after July 23, 1955, mining operations may not begin until the bureau completes a "common variety determination" to determine whether the materials are locatable under the Mining Law of 1872 (43 CFR 3809.101).
Since the two mining claims overlapped, the BLM completed a common variety determination in 2004 for both sets of claims.The BLM concluded that the claimed materials (limestone and dolomite) were not locatable under the Mining Law of 1872. As a result, the BLM contested the mining claims. The contests were eventually settled, resulting in the BLM agreeing to analzye two competitive mineral materials sales.The settlement agreements do not restrict the BLM's discretion in approving or denying the proposed sales and the sales must comply with all applicable statutes and regulations (43 CFR 3600).
In 2007, the BLM initiated an EIS to analyze the impacts of the two proposed competitive mineral materials sales.If approved, the projects would consist of two open pit limestone quarries that would operate for approximately 20 to 30 years, eventually merging into one open pit.The Draft EIS is planned for release in the summer of 2010, at which time the BLM will solicit public comments on whether it should authorize the proposed sales.The Draft EIS will address potential impacts to: air quality, noise, water resources, and socio-economic conditions.The area surrounding Sloan Hills (located within the SNPLMA disposal boundary) is likely to be developed for housing, commercial, and/or industrial uses during the lifetime of the potential sales contracts. During the Draft EIS scoping process, a number of Henderson, Nevada residents expressed their concerns with the proposed sales.
S. 3313 would withdraw approximately 640 acres of BLM-administered public land in Clark County, Nevada, from all forms of location, entry, and patent under the mining laws, and of disposition under all laws pertaining to mineral and geothermal leasing or mineral material sale subject to valid existing rights.
A withdrawal from the mineral materials laws would prohibit the BLM from selling mineral materials in the Sloan Hills area, and would prohibit any future mineral use of the withdrawn lands, subject to valid existing rights.
The BLM understands the concerns of Senator Reid, the Nevada Congressional delegation, Clark County and the City of Henderson regarding the proposed mineral materials sales and potential operations and associated air quality and noise impacts that would occur in close proximity to many neighborhoods.These and other issues will be considered in the Draft EIS. If this area is legislatively withdrawn, the BLM would recommend expanding the boundary to the entire 800 acres of BLM-administered public lands remaining within the Sloan Hills area that are excluded from the SNPLMA disposal boundary.
Thank you for the opportunity to testify.In accordance with the terms of the settlement agreement, the BLM is in the process of analyzing the proposed sales.Consequently, the BLM defers taking a position on the legislation at this time.The Bureau will continue to actively engage the public through an open and transparent EIS process to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mineral materials sales unless Congress chooses to legislate this withdrawal.