Mercury's surface in "enhanced color," a color scheme created to emphasize color differences. This is not what Mercury would look like to the human eye, but by applying mathematical analysis to images, color differences can be accentuated beyond those visible to a person.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
Federal Partners Continue to Support Response Efforts Combating Western Wildfires
Office of the Secretary
FEMA provides additional Fire Management Assistance Grant for Wyoming
WASHINGTON - The U.S. Forest Service, Department of the Interior, Department of Defense and FEMA continue to support efforts to protect life, public safety and aid in community recovery. Last Friday, President Obama approved a disaster declaration for Colorado providing additional support to state and local officials responding to the fires, as well as federal assistance for individuals affected by the High Park and Waldo Canyon Fires. On July 2-3, Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack and Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano will visit Colorado and Idaho to survey ongoing wildfire response efforts on the ground, thank heroic first responders battling the fires, meet with state and local officials and underscore the Administration's support for impacted communities.
Today, the federal family is grieving, following the crash last night of a military C-130 equipped with the Modular Airborne Fire Fighting System, otherwise known as MAFFS. The aircraft crashed while battling a fire in Southwestern South Dakota at approximately 6:30 p.m. mountain time Sunday.
According to DOD there were casualties. The cause of the crash has not been determined, and the incident is under investigation. At the time of the crash, the crew was fighting the White Draw Fire near the town of Edgemont, S.D.
As a prudent measure, the MAFFS-equipped C-130s are on an operational hold at the present time.
Earlier today, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) approved an additional Fire Management Assistance Grant (FMAG) for the Squirrel Creek Fire in Albany County, Wyoming. This brings the overall total number of FMAGs approved for states during this fire season to 22. Other states that have received these important grants include Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming.
FMAGs are provided through the Disaster Relief Fund and made available by FEMA to assist in fighting fires that threaten to cause a major disaster. Eligible items can include expenses for field camps; equipment use, repair and replacement; mobilization and demobilization activities; and tools, materials and supplies.
Currently, fifteen airtankers, not including MAFFS-equipped C-130s, are available nationally to combat fires burning in a number of Western states. More than 11,400 personnel, more than 700 fire engines and more than 120 helicopters are also fighting wildfires around the U.S., supporting state and local efforts.
As part of heightened efforts, on Friday the Forest Service and the Department of the Interior began training an Army battalion at Fort Carson, located near Colorado Springs, Colo., to potentially serve as ground firefighters to boost the number of firefighters available for wildfire suppression throughout the nation. The training involves one day of classroom training and two days of field training. During the classroom training, soldiers learn about wildfire suppression including fire behavior and fireline safety. During field training, soldiers will receive instruction in fire suppression methods and procedures. This effort will ensure there are additional resources available should the U.S. Forest Service require them on the Waldo Canyon Fire.
Yesterday, the National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) released its latest National Wildland Significant Fire Potential Outlook for July-October 2012, which provides coordinated federal, state, local and tribal government agencies, first responders and the public with information about the likelihood that wildland fire events will require mobilization of additional resources from outside the area in which the fire situation originates. Updated outlooks are released by NIFC on the first of every month.
Since the beginning of the Waldo Canyon fire, Fort Carson units and services have committed more than 120 soldiers, 10 bulldozers and other equipment and resources to provide assistance to ongoing fire containment operations and interagency support to the Greater Colorado Springs community.
Firefighters, in the face of adverse weather and difficult terrain, continue to combat the Waldo Canyon fire and more than 1,580 federal, state and local firefighters, over 90 fire engines and 11 helicopters are fighting the fire today in the hillsides west of Colorado Springs.
Joint Federal, state and local damage surveys are continuing in other areas, and more counties and additional forms of assistance may be designated as part of the disaster declaration after the assessments are fully completed.
The major disaster declaration for Colorado, approved by President Obama early Friday morning, makes federal funding available to state and eligible local governments and certain private nonprofit organizations on a cost-sharing basis for emergency protective measures, including direct Federal assistance, for El Paso and Larimer Counties impacted by the High Park and Waldo Canyon Fires. Federal funding is also available for Crisis Counseling and Disaster Unemployment Assistance for affected individuals in El Paso and Larimer Counties impacted by the High Park and Waldo Canyon Fires.
Overall, federal partners have deployed 20 Incident Management Teams (IMT), including four Type 1 IMTs, and fourteen Type 2 IMTs, to help provide a coordinated and aggressive response to wildfires across the country. These teams have been strategically assigned to highly complex wildfires such as, the Waldo Canyon Fire near Colorado Springs, Colorado, the Dahl and Ash Creek fires in Montana, the Seeley and Fontenelle Fires in Wyoming, and others.
To further address the severity of current wildland fire activity across the western states, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and Secretary Vilsack have directed federal land managers to take additional measures to help reduce the risks of new wildfires, ensure the highest possible level of coordination among federal land management agencies, and continue to prioritize safety for firefighters and communities. Additional measures include prohibiting new prescribed fires in geographic areas where Preparedness Level is at 4 or 5 – which currently includes the Rocky Mountain Area, Eastern Great Basin Area, and Southwest Area – and requiring regional or state level approval to initiate any new prescribed fire in all other geographic areas. These measures will remain in effect until the National Multi-Agency Coordinating (NMAC) group determines a national Preparedness Level 3 or below. On June 27th, NMAC raised the preparedness level to 4, on a scale of 1-5.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior, in partnerships with states and local agencies, have developed a cohesive strategy to respond to the increase in wildfires in recent years by focusing on:
Restoring and maintaining resilient landscapes. Through forest and rangeland restoration activities such as mechanical thinning and controlled burns, officials can make forests and rangelands healthier and less susceptible to catastrophic fire.
Creating fire-adapted communities. The Forest Service, the Department of the Interior and their partners are working with communities to reduce fire hazards around houses to make them more resistant to wildfire threats.
Responding to Wildfires. This element considers the full spectrum of fire management activities and recognizes the differences in missions among local, state, tribal and Federal agencies.
On average, the USDA Forest Service and the Department of the Interior bureaus respond to about 16,500 wildfires per year that occur on land under their jurisdiction and assist state and local agencies in responding to a significant number of the approximately 60,000 wildfires per year that occur on land under their jurisdiction. Federal firefighters, aircraft, and ground equipment are strategically assigned to parts of the country as the fire season shifts across the nation. Firefighting experts will continuously monitor conditions and move these assets as necessary to be best positioned and increase initial response capabilities. In addition, federal agencies are conducting accelerated restoration activities nationwide aimed at healthier forests and reduced fire risks in the years to come.
Federal land managers are also helping communities prepare for wildfire. Federal partnerships with state, tribal and local agencies strengthen preparedness programs, such as Firewise http://www.firewise.org/ and Ready Set Go! http://www.iafc.org/readySetGo that help families and communities prepare for and survive wildfire. You can also visit FEMA's Ready.gov http://www.ready.gov, to learn more about steps you and your family can take now to be prepared for an emergency.