Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
In December 1943, Secretary Ickes established a Division of Budget and Administrative Management, headed by a Division Chief. This new Division incorporated the Department's budget staff. The budget staff had previously reported to the First Assistant Secretary, who served as budget officer for the Department. The head of the budget staff had carried the title assistant budget officer.
Initially the Division included a Branch of Organization and Methods focused on organizational issues and operating procedures. It also included for a time a Branch of Investigations, an early forerunner of the Office of the Inspector General. In 1950, these functions were removed and the Division was renamed the Division of Budget and Finance.
The Division was later re-titled the Division of Budget and, in 1965, became the Office of Budget. As it had since 1950, the newly renamed Office contained two operating units. A Division of Budget was concerned with formulation, presentation and execution of the Department's budget. A Division of Fiscal Management and Reports handled fiscal policy, management, procedures and controls.
In 1981, a portion of the Fiscal Management Division was combined with the financial systems staff of the Office of Management Consulting to form a new Office of Financial Management. The Office of Budget retained responsibility for budget execution and administration issues, including administrative control of funds.
Through most of its history, the Office of Budget has had direct operating responsibility for the budget of the Office of the Secretary, although from 1972 to 1986 this function was transferred to an Office of Secretarial Operations. Also, for a period of time, initial budget formulation responsibilities were shared with the Office of Policy Analysis, but this function was fully returned to the Office of Budget in 1988.
When initially established in 1943, the Division of Budget and Administrative Management reported to the Under Secretary, a position then held by Abe Fortas. From 1950 to 1971, budget was the responsibility of the Administrative Assistant Secretary, a non-Presidential advice and consent position established by President Truman in Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1950. The Administrative Assistant Secretary position was abolished in 1971, when Congress established an additional statutory assistant secretary position.
From 1971 to 1973, the Office of Budget reported to an Assistant Secretary for Management and Budget. In 1973, budget responsibilities were separated from management and transferred to an Assistant Secretary for Program Development and Budget. In 1977, this separation was reversed and policy, budget and management functions were combined in a single Assistant Secretary for Policy, Budget and Administration. In 1990, the title of this position was changed to the current Assistant Secretary for Policy, Management and Budget.