Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
S.J. Res. 12 – To Consent to Certain Amendments Enacted by the Legislature of
the State of Hawai‘i to the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, 1920
April 16, 2013
Thank you for providing the Department of the Interior the opportunity to provide its views on Senate Joint Resolution 12 which proposes to consent to and approve three amendments, Act 107, 2000 Hawai‘i Session Laws, Act 12, 2002 Haw. Sess. Laws, and Act 16, 2005 Haw. Sess. Laws., proposed by the legislature of the State of Hawai‘i to the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act (HHCA), 1920, as amended. Specifically, S.J. Res. 12 seeks to amend the HHCA to allow the interest rate on loans from the Hawaiian home-loan fund and the Hawaiian home general loan fund to be set by the Hawaiian Homes Commission through an administrative rule, rather than by law. S.J. Res. 12 also changes the qualifications of homestead lessees by authorizing a Hawaiian Homes Commission Act homestead lessee to transfer, or designate a successor to, their leasehold interest to a brother or sister who is at least one-quarter Native Hawaiian.
By way of background, Congress enacted the HHCA in 1921 to provide a homesteading program on approximately 200,000 acres of land, called the "available lands," for native Hawaiians. In section 4 of the Hawai‘i Admission Act, 73 Stat. 4, Congress required "the consent of the United States" to certain State of Hawai‘i enactments amending the HHCA. In section 204 of the Hawaiian Home Lands Recovery Act (HHLRA) of November 2, 1995, 109 Stat. 361, Congress formalized the role of the Department in securing any required congressional consent and approval to State enactments.
The HHLRA provides that the Department is to review proposed state amendments to the HHCA to determine whether congressional approval is needed to effectuate the United States' consent required under Section 4 of the Hawai‘i Admission Act. If the Department deems that congressional approval is not required, it so notifies the State of Hawai‘i and Congress. If the Department deems that congressional approval is required, as the Department has for the three proposed amendments that are the subject of S.J. Res. 12, the Department is to submit a draft joint resolution approving the amendments to Congress, together with a recommendation on whether they should be approved. Here, we wish to acknowledge that the introduced bill was a product of close collaboration among the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, the Department, and the Hawai‘i Senate delegation.
In carrying out the Department's statutory trust responsibilities to the beneficiaries of the HHCA, the Department obtained input from participants during a Beneficiary Forum with the Department's Office of Native Hawaiian Relations. The forum was held in May 2008 in Hawai‘i to discuss with leaders of the Native Hawaiian beneficiary community the State enactments proposed to amend the HHCA. Due to public request, the Department extended the comment period and conducted an electronic consultation with the Native Hawaiian community.
Based upon the Department's review and the criteria listed in section 4 of the Hawai‘i Admission Act, the Department determined that Act 107, 2000 Haw. Sess. Laws, Act 12, 2002 Haw. Sess. Laws, and Act 16, 2005 Haw. Sess. Laws, require congressional consent before such proposed amendments take on the force of law. The Department supports the United States consenting to and approving of Act 107 and remains neutral on the consenting to and approving of Acts 12 and 16.
This concludes the Department's prepared testimony on S.J. Res. 12, and the Department would be happy to answer any questions the Subcommittee may have.