Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
Madam Chairwoman and Members of the Subcommittee, I am Michael Connor, Commissioner of theBureau of Reclamation (Reclamation). I am pleased to provide the views of the Department of the Interior (Department) on S. 789,the Tule River Tribe Water Development Act. For reasons discussed below, the Department does not support S. 789.
The proposed legislation would direct Interior "to conduct a study on the feasibility and suitability ofconstructing a storage reservoir, outlet works, and a delivery system for the Tule River Indian Tribe of California to provide a water supply for domestic, municipal, industrial, and agricultural purposes, and for other purposes." The Act would authorize $3 million for Reclamation to conduct a feasibility study to be completed within 2 years after funds are appropriated.
Reclamation delivered testimony on similar legislation (HR 2535) during the 110th Congress on September 25, 2007.While S. 789 contains some notable changes in Section 2, the Department's concerns with this bill remain.
Reclamation has not reviewed and is not in a position to verify the accuracy of the cost estimates upon which appropriations are authorized in S. 789. Before being asked to consider a request for authorization or funding of a feasibility study, Reclamation typically has had an opportunity to conduct appraisal-level analysis of a project.Without a completed appraisal level study, the Department believes it is premature to authorize this feasibility study. The authorization of $3 million for this study would further compete with the funding needsof other already authorized projects.Reclamation generally requires completion of an appraisal level study before considering whether the project warrants continuing to a feasibility-level analysis. Reclamation understands that the Tribe has conducted a substantial amount of technical, planning, and environmental work over the past decade; however, Reclamation has not reviewed these documents nor determined how they may affect the scope, cost, or schedule of a feasibility study.
In addition, the proposed legislation does not specify a local non-Federal cost-share partner or a cost share requirement for the feasibility study.Reclamation typically shares feasibility study costs with the non-Federal partners paying 50 percent of study costs. There is ample legislative precedent which supports this approach.For several years settlement agreement negotiations have been conducted between the Tribe, downstream water users, and the Federal negotiation team regarding the Tribe's federally reserved water rights. However, not all of the issues between the Tribe and the Federal negotiating team have been resolved.Moreover, the Department has not analyzed the settlement needs of the Tribe and other parties including the question of whether the proposed storage reservoir, outlet works, and delivery system are a cost effective approach to accomplishing the goals of the settling parties. Nor have issues of cost and cost sharing with other settlement parties been negotiated.Until the Department has completed its analysis of the proposed settlement, it is premature to take a position on the scope, schedule, and cost of the feasibility study that is proposed in this legislation.
Typically, a feasibility study of this size and shape, including National Environmental Policy Act compliance, requires several years to complete with significant costs. Actual costs for this study would be determined afterstudy authorization and appropriations are provided followed by a Plan of Study and public scoping processes. The time and cost to complete the feasibility study and environmental documentation for the Tule River Tribe Water Development Project could be shortened if the Tribe's technical and environmental analyses and documentation are sufficientand compatible with Federal requirements. The costs of a feasibility study are significant and may exceed the $3 million authorization in this bill.
This bill also includes a new subsection 2(c) that would restrict the use of water from any project "relating to the feasibility study" authorized in this legislation, prohibiting the use of water supplies provided by this project for the casino of the Tule River Tribe or any other tribal casino or facility designed to support gaming activity.The Department opposes conditioning support for tribal water development upon restrictions on permissible activities.This bill, if enacted, will place a restriction upon any project that may be authorized as part of a comprehensive water rights settlement even if the exact feasibility study authorized by the bill is never carried out. We understand that the Tribe supports this legislation, but we believe that it raises serious precedent and fairness problems.
Although we do not support this bill, the Department understands the importance of a reliable water supply and will continue to work with the Tribe toward this goal in addressing the issues described above.
That concludes my statement.I would be pleased to answer any questions.