TESTIMONY OF SAM D. HAMILTON, REGIONAL DIRECTOR, SOUTHEAST REGION, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, BEFORE THE HOUSE TRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE COMMITTEE, SUBCOMMITTEE ON WATER RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT REGARDING
DROUGHT ISSUES IN THE SOUTHEAST
March 11, 2008
Madame Chairwoman, and Members of the Subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to testify on behalf of the Department of the Interior regarding the impacts of the current drought in the Southeast.I am Sam Hamilton, Regional Director for the Southeast Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, headquartered in
As you are aware, the Southeast is in the midst of an historic drought.Many reservoirs are at their lowest recorded elevations and several cities and towns support significantly higher populations and demand more water than they did during previous droughts.In 2007, parts of Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee had their lowest annual rainfall on record and stream flows in many areas have been at all time lows.While some forecasts for 2008 suggest that conditions may improve later this year, the situation today remains very serious.
Using information provided by the USGS, this statement provides a brief overview of the relevant hydrology in the region.It includes a discussion of the principal regional reservoirs and the various water uses and competing demands for water in the relevant river basins.The testimony concludes with a discussion of the Department's ongoing role in the region.
Overview of Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin
There are five Federal reservoirs in the
In the context of severe droughts, which occurred in the early and late 1980s and from 1999-2002, conflicts have arisen between increased water demands for Atlanta in the upper part of the Basins and increased demands for irrigation in the lower portion of the ACF.
Principal Reservoirs of the
Much of the recent attention regarding the
Competing Demands for Water in the
How Much Water is in the
There are no simple answers to the questions of how much water is in the
Surface-water use may be classified as consumptive when water is removed from a source and is not returned to the source for reuse immediately downstream.These consumptive amounts depend on several factors, particularly the type of water use, which varies from region to region.Streamflow during low-flow periods comes primarily from ground water and can be affected by ground-water pumping.
On an average annual basis, consumptive use from the metropolitan
The greatest changes in Basin hydrology in the past three decades have been driven by increased public supply demands associated with the
Overview of Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River Basin
The upper reservoirs in the
Federal Role in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin
Water is a public resource governed by state governments, not Federal agencies.However, Federal agencies play an important cooperating role, and the Federal government has made significant investments in the construction and maintenance of reservoirs to meet multiple public use purposes.As noted above, in the ACF basin there are four large Federal reservoirs.One of the Department's roles, through the Service, is to advise Federal agencies with regard to their obligations under the Endangered Species Act.
Balancing the water needs of millions of people across three States is not easy, particularly during this extreme drought.The river system supplies water for many municipal and industrial purposes, including power generation, flood control, navigation, drinking water, agriculture, pollution dilution, fish and wildlife habitat, and recreation.It is important to understand that the Service is not putting the needs of fish and mussels ahead of the needs of people.Conserving aquatic species is a means to ensure the health of our rivers and streams, and mussels are the canary in the coal mine for our rivers - declines in native mussel populations indicate an emerging problem with the health of the river that could affect people.
The Service has been working with the Corps since the 1980s when drafting of revisions to the ACF Water Control Plan began.Shortly thereafter the "ACF Water Wars" ensued in several Federal courts.Throughout the era of the tri-state water compact in the 1990s, the Service provided assistance as additional data was collected and as the States negotiated water allocations.With the listing of the Gulf sturgeon as threatened in 1991 and the mussels as endangered in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act, the Service consulted with the Corps as it managed flows within the system.
In addition to our participation in these overarching negotiations, the Service is working proactively on the ground in the ACF basin to help communities meet their growing water demands.For example:
Regardless of these and other proactive efforts to conserve species, in 2006, the basin experienced diminishing precipitation levels and the situation worsened in 2007.Without rainfall, the Corps had to adjust its operations to meet the multiple purposes of the reservoirs, the needs of fish and wildlife, and the needs of basin stakeholders.
To address potential effects of reservoir operations, the Corps developed the Interim Operating Plan (IOP) in 2006, and the Service formally consulted on this plan.While some mussels could be affected by the IOP, we concluded that it was not enough to jeopardize the species' continued existence.Measures to avoid and minimize harm to the species were recommended and accepted by the Corps.
As the drought worsened, the Corps and the Service agreed to several adjustments to the IOP in October 2007, to help maintain water in reservoir storage.The Corps then formally amended the IOP on November 1, 2007, producing the Exceptional Drought Operations (EDO) plan to increase opportunities to store water during rain events.Knowing that extreme drought was continuing, and given our close working relationship with the Corps, the Service marshaled a large team to collect additional data, complete the needed analyses, and complete formal consultation on the EDO in only 15 days, a process that typically takes up to 135 days.
Today we continue to work closely with the Corps, the States, and other Federal agencies to enhance flexibility in water management on the ACF, while considering the needs of fish and wildlife resources.Most recently, we have been supporting Secretary Kempthorne and his staff as they assist the States in negotiating a water sharing agreement for the ACF.
Drought Throughout the Southeast
Of course, the ACF basin is just one of the stressed river systems throughout the Southeast.In addition to working with
The Department is seriously committed to working with states affected by drought now and in the future.The drought has highlighted data gaps and information needs that, if filled, would facilitate future decision-making for the Service and our State and Federal partners.For example, for the ACF we have created a list of projects that would increase our understanding of river hydrology and the habitat needs of sturgeon and mussels; implement key habitat restoration efforts; and provide incentives to private landowners to conserve water.We are developing similar lists of information needs for the ACT and other basins.
The drought has also highlighted existing areas of work that are crucial for understanding water shortages. For example, USGS stream gauges throughout these river systems have been important monitoring tools over the course of the drought.Data resulting from this program is basic to our ability to understand changing hydrology and manage these river systems.
While we need information to make decisions, partnerships with key water users and education efforts that encourage the public to conserve water are also needed.Water may soon become a limiting factor for growth and development in many areas of the southeast.While we cannot produce more rain, we can all do more to maximize the use of the precipitation that the Southeast receives to best meet the needs of all water users.
The Department and its State and Federal partners have been working proactively for many years to implement solutions that balance the many uses of these systems, including meeting the water needs of people, while at the same time conserving species.Maintaining healthy river systems is critically important to the economy and natural environment of the
Madame Chairwoman, thank you for the opportunity to testify today.This concludes my prepared remarks, and I would be happy to respond to any questions that Members may have.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2004, Extended unimpaired flow report, January 1994–December 2001, for the ACT/ACFRiver Basins, 34 p.
Fanning, J.L., 2003, Water use in
Jones, L.E., and Torak, L.J., 2006, Simulated effects of seasonal ground-water pumpage for irrigation on hydrologic conditions in the Lower Apalachicola– Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin, southwestern Georgia and parts of Alabama and Florida, 1999 –2002: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5234, 83 p., Web-only publication available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5234/.
Landers, M.N. and Painter, J.A., 2007, How Much Water Is in the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, and
Torak, L.J., and McDowell, R.J., 1996, Ground-Water Resources of the Lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in parts of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia—Subarea 4 of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basins, USGS Open-File Report 95-321, 145 p., available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1995/ofr95321/