Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, the Department of the Interior appreciates the opportunity to provide its views on H.R. 2381, the "Upper Mississippi River Basin Protection Act."
The Department appreciates the efforts of the sponsors of H.R. 2831 to address this important issue and place emphasis within the bill on the need for reliance on sound science. However, we have concerns about the financial resources that would be required for the USGS to carry out this bill in the context of the availability of resources overall for Administration programs. In addition, although we support the goals of H.R. 2831 we note that the activities called for in this bill are duplicative of existing Department of the Interior authorities.
The bill directs the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the USGS, to provide a scientific basis for the management of sediment and nutrient loss in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. This would be accomplished through establishing a sediment and nutrient monitoring network that builds on existing monitoring activities; conducting research and modeling that relates sediment and nutrient losses to landscape, land use and land management characteristics; providing technical assistance regarding use of consistent and reliable methods for data collection; and instituting a program to disseminate new information to managers, scientists and the public.
The role identified for the Department in this bill is consistent with USGS's leadership role in monitoring, interpretation, research, and assessment of the health and status of the water and biological resources of the Nation. As the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science, and civilian mapping agency, USGS conducts the largest single non-regulatory ambient water-quality monitoring activity in the Nation. The USGS has been active in a number of programs and investigations that involve the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) specifically.
The USGS is a participant in the Mississippi River, Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force. This Task Force, which has representation from federal agencies, and state and tribal governments in the basin, is charged with fulfilling requirements of The Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act of 1998, by preparing a plan for controlling hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, and shares a common goal of improving water-quality conditions in the Mississippi River Basin.
The USGS also had a lead role in the preparation of a science report that used available water-quality information to define a recent baseline condition for nutrient sources and loads in the Mississippi River Basin -- a baseline from which future water-quality trends and improvements will be measured. This report identifies those parts of the Upper Mississippi River Basin that have the highest nutrient yields.
The USGS has offices in each of the five Upper Mississippi River Basin states. These offices have a long history of conducting water-quantity and water-quality monitoring and assessment activities within the basin. Existing USGS programs include the Hydrologic Networks and Analysis Program, the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the National Stream Quality Accounting Network, the National Streamflow Information Program, the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, the Water Resources Research Act Program, and the Cooperative Water Program, as well as cooperative efforts such as the Long-Term Resource Monitoring Program funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. These programs currently provide information on nutrients and sediment within the basin.
For more than 20 years, the USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) in La Crosse, Wisconsin has provided research support in the Upper Mississippi River Basin to DOI agencies and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to address complex issues of navigation, contaminants, and other natural resource concerns. More recently, this Center has developed an active partnership with the Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, on sediment and nutrient concerns of the agencies. For over 15 years, the UMESC has provided the scientific and management leadership for the Long-term Resource Monitoring Program component of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Upper Mississippi Restoration-Environmental Management Program. This monitoring program of water quality, fisheries, vegetation, land use, and other critical indicators of river health is the largest main stem river assessment program in the Nation. The USGS conducts monitoring activities in cooperation with many states and local governments in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. The USGS is also active in hydrologic and water-quality studies in the Lower Mississippi River Basin. The continuity of research is important from the standpoint of developing a complete assessment of the entire Mississippi River basin. To this end, the USGS has begun a partnership with the Long-term Estuary Assessment Group, centered at Tulane University.
H.R. 2381 acknowledges the need to use all existing monitoring and science programs of the USGS and those of other entities while identifying information needs in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Existing monitoring and assessment programs and development of models are tools for defining how water-quality conditions are affected by human activities and natural climatic variations and how management actions may best improve water-quality conditions at a wide range of scales from small watersheds to the Mississippi River Basin.
The bill would also authorize integration of activities conducted in cooperation with other federal partners and would emphasize and expand the existing USGS coordination and assistance to state monitoring programs. For example, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (Service) Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program restores wetland habitat in watersheds across the country, including the Upper Mississippi River Basin. The Service can apply its expertise to the reduction of sediment and nutrient loss in the basin through participation in demonstration projects, technical assistance, and working groups. We recognize the need to ensure that future monitoring activities complement and do not duplicate state monitoring activities.
In summary, while the proposed legislation describes a program consistent with current USGS activities to support protection of the UMRB and the Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force recommendations, these conservation activities are already being addressed by other on-going programs. Funding for the activities in H.R. 2381 is not included in the fiscal year 2009 President's Budget proposal and would remain subject to available resources.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman, for providing the Department with the opportunity to present this statement.