Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Salazar Lauds Private-Public Collaboration on the New Energy Frontier at Solar ‘Power Tower' Plant Groundbreaking
Office of the Secretary
Ivanpah is first-ever solar project to break ground on public lands
Last edited 4/25/2016
IVANPAH, CA – As part of the Obama Administration's initiative to encourage the rapid and responsible development of renewable energy on U.S. public lands, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar today celebrated the groundbreaking of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, an innovative "power tower" project in San Bernardino County, California.
Along with California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and representatives from BrightSource Energy, the developer, and the Department of Energy, Secretary Salazar lauded the cooperation that launched the thermal solar technology project that will generate 1,000 construction jobs and provide 370 megawatts of clean, renewable energy for up to 277,500 homes.
“Ivanpah is an outstanding example of the progress we are making in building a renewable energy economy,” Salazar said at the groundbreaking. “With private sector initiative and government coordination and encouragement, we are helping to meet the President's goals for stimulating local economies, creating new jobs for American workers, reducing carbon emissions, promoting energy independence and strengthening our national security."
Ivanpah is one of six large-scale solar energy projects the Secretary has approved this month as part of the Department's ongoing commitment to the production of renewable energy on lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Combined, the six projects would produce 2,837 megawatts of energy, enough to power 851,500 to 2.1 million homes, as well as create 3,700 new construction jobs and more than six hundred permanent plant operations positions.
Located in Southern California's Mojave Desert, Ivanpah is the first of these projects to break ground. The others include the Imperial Valley Solar Project (Tessera Solar); Chevron Lucerne Valley Solar Project (Chevron Energy Solutions); Silver State North Solar Project in Nevada (First Solar); Calico Solar Project (Tessera Solar); and the Blythe Solar Power Project (Palo Verde Solar I).
Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, renewable energy developers whose projects begin construction by the end of 2010 can apply for payments of up to 30 percent of the eligible costs of the project. Also under the Recovery Act, renewable energy companies can be awarded loan guarantees from the U.S. Department of Energy for their public land projects. For Ivanpah, BrightSource has received a conditional loan guarantee for $1.37 billion from the Department of Energy.
The solar projects employ a variety of innovative solar thermal and solar photovoltaic technologies. Ivanpah, for example, will include three solar thermal power units that use mirror fields to focus solar energy on power tower receivers near the center of each array. Steam from solar boilers in the towers drive a turbine which generates electricity for the transmission grid. Construction of all three phases is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2013.
All of the projects underwent extensive environmental review, starting with public scoping, followed by a draft environment impact statement (EIS) with full public involvement, culminating in final EIS and Record of Decision. As part of this process, when warranted, BLM can require significant changes in proposed projects to minimize environmental impacts. For Ivanpah, BLM reduced the size of the project by 15 percent, from 4,073 acres down to 3,471 acres and the number of heliostats (solar mirrors) from 214,000 to 173,500.
BrightSource also was required to compensate for impacts to wildlife, water, and other resources through an innovative joint compensation fund created by Federal and State agencies and operated by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. To satisfy federal and state requirements, BrightSource will acquire more than 7,300 mitigation acres. Pursuant to a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service approved plan, Desert Tortoise onsite will be tested for disease, translocated to suitable, comparable habitat and monitored. As part of BLM's ongoing Desert Tortoise conservation plan, BLM has already set aside more than 3 million acres of habitat in California.
Four of the six solar projects announced this month were jointly processed through the BLM and the California Energy Commission (CEC) cooperative model established by an October 12, 2009 agreement between Secretary Salazar and California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. The agreement directed Interior and State agencies to create an initiative to advance development of environmentally appropriate renewable energy on U.S. lands in California. The CEC approved the Ivanpah project on September 22, 2010.