Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
Trustees Release Final Restoration Plan for Natural Resources Injured by Hazardous Substances Releases into Lower Duwamish River, Washington
Last edited 2/14/2017
On September 24, 2013, the federal, State and Tribal natural resource trustees released the publicly-reviewed “Final Lower Duwamish River NRDA Restoration Plan and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement.” This Restoration Plan is intended to expedite future site-specific restoration projects and to facilitate preparation of project-specific environmental documents associated with natural resource injuries at the Lower Duwamish River National Priorities List site in Seattle, King County, Washington.
The natural resource trustees involved in this case include;
Muckleshoot Indian Tribe;
State of Washington, represented by Washington Department of Ecology, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Washington Department of Natural Resources;
U.S. Department of Commerce, represented by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and,
U.S. Department of the Interior, represented by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Duwamish River -- the name for the lower 12 miles of Green River in Washington -- empties into Elliott Bay in Seattle, King County. The shorelines along the River have been extensively developed for industrial and commercial operations. These operations include cargo handling and storage, marine construction, boat manufacturing, marina operations, paper and metals fabrication, food processing and airplane parts manufacturing. The waterway is maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as a federal navigation channel.
Hazardous substances were released to the River by several likely mechanisms including spills during product shipping and handling, direct disposal, contaminated groundwater discharge, surface water runoff, contaminated soil runoff and storm water discharge through outfalls. Sediments in the River are contaminated with semi-volatile organic compounds, PCBs, inorganic compounds and organotins. In 2001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency placed the lower five miles of Duwamish River on the NPL.
Lower Duwamish River provides important estuarine habitat and serves as a migratory route, nursery and osmoregulatory transition zone for several salmon species including the federally threatened Puget Sound Chinook salmon. The area is important for commercial, recreational and subsistence fishing and is part of the traditional fishing grounds of Muckleshoot and Suquamish Indian tribes. Extensive studies in the River and in Elliott Bay have determined that contaminated sediments have injured natural resources such as flatfish, salmonids and migratory birds.
This newly released Restoration Plan will guide implementation of natural resource restoration activities in the Lower Duwamish River and Elliott Bay. The Plan selects “Integrated Habitat Restoration” as the preferred restoration alternative. Under this approach, restoration of key habitats is anticipated to benefit the range of different resources injured by hazardous substances releases. Additionally, the Plan includes a detailed description of the methodology considered for use in a settlement-based approach to injury assessment.