Mercury's surface in "enhanced color," a color scheme created to emphasize color differences. This is not what Mercury would look like to the human eye, but by applying mathematical analysis to images, color differences can be accentuated beyond those visible to a person.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
Trustees Release Final Restoration Plan for November 2007 M/V Cosco Busan Oil Spill in San Francisco Bay, California
Last edited 2/14/2017
A U.S. Coast Guard vessel inspects damage to the hull of the M/V Cosco Busan the day after the 900-foot long container ship struck a footing of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in San Francisco Bay, California. An estimated 53,569 gallons of bunker fuel oil was released through the gash in the ship’s port side into the Bay, fouling public shorelines and historic ships, injuring herring, killing threatened and migratory birds and oiling habitat. Photo credit: Michael Macor, San Francisco Chronicle.
On March 1, 2012, the federal and State natural resource trustees released the Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan/Environmental Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan oil spill into San Francisco Bay, California. The natural resource trustees include State of California, Department of Commerce, acting through National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Department of the Interior, acting through Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
On November 7, 2007, the fully-loaded container ship M/V Cosco Busan struck a fender on a structural tower of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge while leaving the Port of Oakland. An estimated 53,569 gallons of bunker fuel oil were released into San Francisco Bay through a gash in the ship’s hull. The oil spill caused widespread injury to natural resources and natural resource services, including:
more than 6,800 birds of 65 different species were killed including the threatened marbled murrelet, the threatened western snowy plover and migratory species;
as much as 29% of the winter 2007 – 2008 herring spawn in San Francisco Bay was lost due to egg mortality;
over 3,300 acres of shoreline habitat were oiled including lands managed by Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; and,
over 1,000,000 human recreational user-days on public shorelines were lost.
Additionally, historic ships managed by the National Park Service at San Francisco Maritime National Historic Park were oiled. A $32.3 million settlement for natural resource damages was reached with the responsible parties -- including the ship’s owner, the ship’s operator and the ship’s pilot -- on January 27, 2012.
The publicly-reviewed “Cosco Busan Oil Spill Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan/Environmental Assessment” seeks to restore these natural resources and natural resource services injured by the oil spill. The trustees considered over 25 restoration alternatives and, in the end, selected 12 restoration projects to address the injured natural resources and a process to identify recreational use restoration projects. The restoration plan allocates the following funding amounts among the four main restoration focus areas:
Bird restoration projects: $5 million;
Fish/Eelgrass restoration projects: $2.5 million;
Habitat restoration projects: $4 million; and,
Recreational use restoration projects: $18.8 million.
Another $2 million is allocated to cover administrative and oversight costs but a portion of these funds could be reprogrammed to augment restoration projects, if available.
Specific natural resource restoration projects are planned for the following Interior-managed lands: Golden Gate National Recreation Area; Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge; Farallon National Wildlife Refuge; Marin Islands National Wildlife Refuge; and, Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Recreational use restoration projects are likely to be implemented in Golden Gate National Recreation. The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, working through the State of California, will solicit proposals for recreational use projects in the near future.