Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
Interior Department Announces Funding for Climate Change Studies
As part of President Obama's Climate Action Plan, research funding will provide land and wildlife managers with tools to adapt to climate change
Last edited 4/26/2016
WASHINGTON, D.C. — U.S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell announced today that the Department of the Interior's regional Climate Science Centers and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center are awarding nearly $6 million to universities and other partners for 50 new research projects to better prepare communities for impacts of climate change.
"These climate studies are designed to help address regional concerns associated with climate change, providing a pathway to enhancing resilience and supporting local community needs," said Secretary Jewell. "The impacts of climate change are vast and complex, so studies like these are critical to help ensure that our nation's responses are rooted in sound science."
As part of President Obama's Climate Action Plan, the 50 scientific studies announced today will focus on how climate change is affecting natural and cultural resources and tribal communities, as well as inform management actions that can be taken to help offset those impacts. The research can help guide managers of parks, refuges and other cultural and natural resources to plan how to help species, ecosystems, tribes and other communities adapt to climate change. The studies, most of which will occur over multiple years, will be conducted with fiscal year 2014 funding. A full list of the projects is available here.
Each of the Department of the Interior's eight regional Climate Science Centers (CSCs) worked with states, tribes, federal agencies, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), universities supporting the CSCs, and other regional partners to identify the highest priority management challenges in need of scientific input, and to solicit and select research projects.
The studies will be undertaken by teams of scientists—including researchers from the universities that comprise each region's CSC—from Interior's U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and from other partners such as the states, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USDA Forest Service, tribes, and the LCCs in each region.
“These are boots-on-the-ground practical projects to help answer the kinds of questions resource managers are asking about how to respond effectively to, and plan for, climate change,” said Suzette Kimball, Acting Director of USGS. “The selected projects will use the best science to help managers understand changes occurring now and in the future, as well as shed light on what management actions are most sensible to take.”
Approximately $25 million of funding has been granted for research through the NCCWSC and the CSCs. CSCs and LCCs have been created under Interior's strategy to address the impacts of climate change on America's waters, land, and other natural and cultural resources.
Select examples of the 50 projects funded by CSCs and the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center with FY 2014 funds:
Examining the effects of climate-mediated forest change in Alaska on the habitats of caribou and moose, both important to the subsistence and sport hunting economies throughout the state.
Helping land management planning by creating a groundwater-prediction model that addresses reduced snowfall and snowpack, earlier spring runoff, increased winter stream flow and flooding and decreased summer stream flow brought about by climate change.
North Central CSC:
Studying evaporation, drought and the water cycle in the northern Rockies and Northern Great Plains.
Understanding the human-dimension of adaptation planning for these anticipated changes.
Projecting changes in winter severity, snowpack and lake ice in the Great Lakes Basin over the coming century and anticipated consequences for wildlife populations.
Helping land managers in the Pacific Northwest strategically maximize snow retention by protecting forests in some areas while opening gaps in others.
Supporting climate-resilience planning for the 15 Columbia River Basin Tribes and 3 Inter-Tribal Organizations.
Understanding how wildfires and land-use change will affect watersheds and water supply, under current and future climates in the western United States.
Pacific Islands CSC:
Preparing for changes in freshwater resources and associated agro-forestry to improve food security and overall community resilience to the impacts of climate change.
South Central CSC:
Creating a better understanding of drought dynamics and fire weather forecasting by linking precipitation variability, soil and air temperatures and daily temperature changes.
Providing research opportunities to students and staff working with the Southeast CSC with a focus on decision analysis and science communication training.
Identifying a chronology of extreme storms, especially atmospheric rivers, over the past 30 years and their effects on the Sierra Nevada and western Great Basin ecosystems.
Unraveling the joint impacts of cool-season precipitation and increasing spring temperatures on snowpack declines and runoff in the Colorado River headwaters to help address future water management challenges throughout the basin, from the Rockies to California.
Examining the impact of increased storms and sea-level rise on connected coastal habitats in California and other coastal states to support future planning and conservation.