Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
Secretary Salazar Charts Future for Landsat Satellite Program
Office of the Secretary
Investment, Reorganization to Drive Innovation, Job-Creation
Last edited 4/26/2016
Edited 22 March 2011
BOULDER, CO — Today, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced plans to make the Department of the Interior the permanent manager of the Landsat series of Earth observation satellites.
“Bringing the Landsat satellite mission under USGS is not only the best scientific and fiscal plan for the country,” said Secretary Salazar, “but also will bring stability to the high tech employers that hire and build these systems right here in the United States. Landsat drives innovation and job-creation at many levels of our economy, from the satellite manufacturers that build the technologies to the water managers, farmers, and resource managers across the West and around the world who rely on its data for smart and efficient operations.”
Secretary Salazar announced the plans after touring Ball Aerospace, the maker of a key instrument on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) which is the next, and final, satellite in the Landsat series, if future plans are not adopted.
NASA Chief Scientist Waleed Abdalati, Assistant Secretary for Water and Science Anne Castle, U.S. Geological Survey Director Marcia McNutt, and CEO and President of Ball Aerospace David Taylor joined Secretary Salazar at today's event.
Under the plans announced by Secretary Salazar and included in the President's 2012 budget submission, the Department of the Interior's United States Geological Survey (USGS) will become the permanent budgetary and managerial home for future Landsat satellites missions, a recommendation that was also endorsed by the past Administration.
Landsat satellites capture data about the Earth's surface that no other private or public source can provide. This unique data has become vital to agricultural, water management, disaster response, scientific, and national security uses, providing hundreds of millions of dollars in estimated value to the U.S. economy per year. The USGS already owns and operates the two Landsat satellites currently in orbit and is working in partnership with NASA to develop the LDCM satellite mission. NASA's expertise will be retained under the announced plans, with NASA continuing to build and launch future Landsat satellites for USGS. The plans will require Congressional approval to be finalized.
“Images from Landsat satellites flying over 400 miles above the earth tell us a whole range of stories about the land,” said USGS Director Marcia McNutt. “A permanent Landsat home will ensure that we continue to see the land so broadly, so distinctly, so objectively, that we can better understand our lands and manage them more efficiently, based on science, for the benefit of the American people.”
“We were very pleased to have an opportunity to show Secretary Salazar the progress being made on the Operational Land Imager instrument, the key technology development for the next Landsat Earth Imaging Satellite,” said Ball Aerospace president and CEO, David L. Taylor. “The Ball-built sensor will provide the vital capability to continue LandSat Earth observations into a fourth decade.”
"NASA has worked with USGS to support the Landsat series of satellites from their inception and believes a permanent USGS-based program will ensure a path of continued innovation in the 21st century,” said Dr. Waleed Abdalati, Chief Scientist at NASA. “As an R&D agency, NASA will continue to support the Landsat program by developing and testing the technologies needed to meet the nation's future remote sensing needs. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission will hopefully mark the beginning of a new phase for the Landsat series under USGS's leadership, with the continued benefit and support of NASA's expertise."
Once operating from approximately 440 miles overhead, Ball Aerospace's Operational Land Imager (OLI) instrument will digitally image the Earth's land surface in 185 km (115 mi.) swaths. These orbital characteristics allow global land features to be observed every 16 days at a medium-scale resolution, in which each picture element, or pixel, portrays an area about the size of a baseball infield. This resolution is optimal for observing both natural and human-induced land conditions worldwide. From a technical perspective, the OLI provides 30-meter multispectral and 15-meter panchromatic land-image data.
Following the tour, Secretary Salazar joined students from Skyline High School, a state of the art Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) school, for a discussion on the importance of science and innovation in the classroom.
“As our future scientists, it is important that these students understand the Department's role in space-based science and how they can make a positive impact on the Colorado economy by pursuing high tech jobs,” said Secretary Salazar. “I applaud schools like Skyline for providing the resources and training needed to create an innovative workforce.”