Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
The U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI) Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Program (Restoration Program) operates under a series of laws, regulations, and authorizing statutes. Additional Program guidance arises from Executive Orders and Departmental policies.
Laws and Regulations Three laws, and their accompanying regulations, form the legal foundation for the NRDA Restoration Program and provide trustees with the legal authority to carry out Restoration Program responsibilities. These laws and regulations authorize and direct the DOI to take appropriate actions necessary to protect and restore the natural resources (and services provided by those natural resources) under its trusteeship that have been injured by a release of a hazardous substance or discharge, or a substantial threat of discharge of oil.
In addition to the three laws and their accompanying regulations above, the NRDA Restoration Program also refers to the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), as amended (40 CFR 300), issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The NCP regulations provide for efficient, coordinated, and effective action to minimize adverse effects from oil discharges and hazardous substance releases.
Authority and Authorizing Statutes As authorized by CERCLA, OPA, and CWA, injuries to natural resources that the DOI manages or controls are assessed, and appropriate restoration projects are identified in contemplation of negotiated settlements or legal actions (in rare cases) with potentially responsible parties. Recoveries, in cash or in-kind services, from the potentially responsible parties are then used to finance or implement the restoration of the injured resources, pursuant to a publicly reviewed restoration plan.
CERCLA, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 9601, et seq.). Section 106 of the act authorizes the President to clean up hazardous substance sites directly, or obtain cleanup by a responsible party through enforcement actions. Trustees for natural resources may assess and recover damages for injury to natural resources from releases of hazardous substances and use the damages for restoration, replacement, or acquisition of equivalent natural resources. Provides permanent authorization to appropriate receipts from responsible parties.
OPA (33 U.S.C. §§ 2701, et seq.). Amends the CWA and authorizes trustees for natural resources to present a claim for, and to recover damages for, injuries to natural resources from each responsible party for a vessel or facility from which oil is discharged, or which poses a substantial threat of discharge of oil, into or upon the navigable waters of the United State (U.S.), adjoining shorelines, or the exclusive zone.
CWA, as amended (33 U.S.C. §§ 1251, et seq.). Authorizes trustees for natural resources to assess and recover damages for injuries to natural resources resulting from the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the U.S., adjoining shorelines, or waters of the contiguous zone; any connection with activities under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. §§ 1331, et seq.) or the Deepwater Port Act of 1974 (33 U.S.C. §§ 1501, et seq.); or that which may affect natural resources belonging to, appertaining to, or under the exclusive management authority of the U.S.
Public Law 101-337 (16 U.S.C. §§ 19jj, et seq.). Provides that response costs and damages recovered under it, or amounts recovered under any statute as a result of damage to any Federal resource within a unit of the National Park System, shall be retained and used for response costs, damage assessments, restoration, and replacements. Liability for damages under this public law is in addition to any other liability that may arise under other statutes.
Dire Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1992 (H.J.RES. 157/P.L. 102-229). Provides that the fund's receipts are authorized to be invested and available until expended. Also, provides that the amounts received by the U.S. in the settlement of United States vs. Exxon Corporation, et al. in fiscal year 1992 and thereafter be deposited into the fund.
In addition to the laws, regulations, and authorizing statutes described above the NRDA Restoration Program operates under a series of Departmental policies and guidelines.
Departmental Policies Departmental Policies consist of policy letters, memorandums, or bulletins issued by authorized Department management officials that generally provide policy guidance for the DOI based on broader government regulations. For further information on the policies that the NRDA Restoration Program operates under, please refer to the links/documents below.
In ascending order by date (most recent policy first):
Policy for Signature of Non-Case Specific Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration (NRDA Restoration) Program-Related Documents and Documents Involving both CERCLA/OPA Response and NRDAR Program Activities May 25, 2001 Adobe Acrobat - 298 KB .pdf File
Departmental Manual Guidelines Permanent policy documents approved by the Secretary of the Interior or the Assistant Secretary - Policy, Management and Budget are incorporated into the Department of Interior's Departmental Manual (DM). These policy documents may include: organization descriptions; delegations of authority; and standards for administrative, legal, legislative, informational, and program activities within the DOI. The entire DM is available at the Electronic Library of Interior Policies (ELIPS). The particular Parts and Chapters of the DM applicable to the NRDAR Program can be found below.
Part 112, Chapter 30-Organization (112 DM 30) October 19, 2010
Part 207, Chapter 6-Delegation (207 DM 6) July 7, 2000
Part 521, Chapter 1-Authorities and Policy (521 DM 1) September 14, 1998
Part 521, Chapter 2-Responsibilities (521 DM 2) September 14, 1998
Part 521, Chapter 3-Signatory Authority (521 DM 3) September 14, 1998
Currently, certain portions of the DM applicable to the NRDA Restoration Program are undergoing revision pursuant to Secretarial Order 3295. In particular, revisions to 207 DM 6, 521 DM 1, 521 DM 2 and 521 DM 3 have been drafted and are being reviewed prior to being signed and implemented. Until the revisions have been approved and signed, the existing Parts and Chapters still apply.
Executive Orders (EOs) EOs are legally binding instructions given by the President, acting as the head of the Executive Branch, to federal administrative agencies. EOs are used to direct federal agencies and officials in their execution of established laws or policies. EOs, numbered consecutively, are printed in the daily Federal Register after being signed by the President. The following EOs pertain to natural resource damage assessment and restoration activities.