Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) defines “natural resource damage assessment” as the process of collecting, compiling, and analyzing information, statistics, or data through prescribed methodologies to determine damages for injuries to natural resources.
What is the difference between resource “injury” and resource “damage"?
“Injury” refers to the actual adverse impact or loss of the natural resource resulting either directly or indirectly from exposure to a release or threat of release of oil or a discharge or release of a hazardous substance. An injury assessment investigates and explains the extent of adverse impact to the natural resource.
“Damage” is the amount of money sought by the natural resource trustee as appropriate to compensate for the injury through natural resource restoration or replacement projects.
What is the definition of “natural resources"?
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) defines “natural resources” or “resources” as land, fish, wildlife, biota, air, water, groundwater, drinking water supplies, and other such resources managed by or otherwise controlled by the United States, any state or local government, any foreign government, or any Indian Tribe. CERCLA natural resource damage regulations have categorized natural resources into the following five groups: surface water resources, groundwater resources, air resources, geologic resources, and biological resources.
What is trusteeship? Who in the U.S. Department of the Interior is a trustee?
Congress authorizes states, tribes, and federal resource management agencies to act on behalf of the public as “trustee” for the purpose of bringing a claim to recover damages necessary to restore or replace injured public resources managed or controlled by the respective states, tribes, or federal agency.
U.S. Department of the Interior trusteeship includes natural resources such as BLM-managed public lands, the National Park System, National Wildlife Refuges, migratory birds, threatened and endangered species, interjurisdictional fisheries, Tribal resources, and public uses (such as recreation) that are dependent on those resources.
While the Secretary of the Interior is designated as the trustee, the day-to-day responsibility to act on behalf of the Secretary is delegated on a case-specific basis to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Land Management, the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the National Park Service. In nearly all cases, these bureaus carry out damage assessment activities in partnerships with other affected federal, state, and tribal co-trustees.
Who is responsible for natural resource restoration?
Natural resource restoration is paid for by funds recovered from settlements with responsible parties, not at the expense of the taxpayer. In addition, settlements often include the recovery of the costs incurred in assessing the damages. These funds are then used to fund further damage assessments.
Does the Restoration Program only restore resources at the spill or contamination site?
Regulatory definitions do not specify a preference for restoration in the location where it was injured. Practice has shown that the preferred restoration alternative can occasionally be in a location geographically removed from the original spill or release.
Does the Restoration Program (or NRDAR) restore natural resources injured by fires, flood, or other natural disasters?
The responsibility of NRDAR is to assess and restore natural resources injured specifically by oil spills or hazardous substance release. Government programs that restore natural resources damaged by fires, floods, or other natural disasters do exist, but they exist separate from NRDAR. However, NRDAR may get involved if an oil spill or hazardous material released during a natural disaster is the result of negligence.
How long does the assessment and restoration process take?
There is no fixed amount of time for the damage assessment and restoration process to take place. Each case is unique and the amount of time can vary significantly. Damage assessments are often quite complex and often take years to complete. However, some cases are less complex and take less time to complete.
How does the public get involved in natural resource restoration?
There are several ways for the public to get involved with natural resource restoration. The program relies on input from the public during the restoration planning phase through public meetings and forums. Before implementation, restoration plans must undergo public review to ensure broad support for the actions to restore the injured resources.
Additionally, individual and group volunteers are often encouraged to participate in many restoration implementation activities. Because each project is localized, the best way to find out more information about getting involved is to contact a local trustee bureau office or a local trustee partner. U.S. Department of the Interior trustee bureaus include the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Bureau of Land Management.