Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Emergency Support Function (ESF) #11 Protection of Natural and Cultural Resources and Historic Properties (NCH) is part of the National Response Framework (NRF), The NRF is how the Federal Government plans for and responds to disasters by utilizing the capabilities identified in the ESFs. The NRF coordinates response activities undertaken by the federal government to stabilize and preserve resources that have been impacted by a major disaster or emergency. ESF #11 NCH is just one component of ESF #11 Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Utilizing ESF #11 NCH capabilities, the Federal Government manages and coordinates the appropriate actions to protect, conserve, rehabilitate, and restore NCH Resources. We provide personnel, equipment, and supplies in support of State, Tribal, Territorial, and local authorities or other federal agencies involved in NCH resources protection efforts.
The Department of the Interior (DOI) is the primary agency for managing the ESF #11 NCH capabilities, and it coordinates Federal actions to help safeguard State, Tribal, and local resources.
ESF #11 NCH can only be activated once the President of the United States has issued a Presidential disaster Declaration for an area or region. When that declaration occurs, State governments requesting aid submit Action Request Forms to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). If FEMA approves a request, it will send a Mission Assignment (MA) to the appropriate ESF. If the MA requests assistance for NCH resources, it will be sent to DOI, detailing the type of aid requested. In order to staff the MA, DOI solicits the aid of staff from its bureaus and support agencies which have the necessary skills and expertise required to undertake response work.
Some examples of work we performed under ESF #11 NCH are:
Identify and consult on archeological sites
Consult on Threatened and Endangered Species
Provide technical preservation assistance for museums and archival collections
Create GIS maps of historic districts in impacted area
Conduct building and site condition assessments
Stabilize damaged paper and digital records
Additionally, we work with a variety of other government agencies and non-governmental organizations to both respond and offer advice and recommendations to individuals and institutions on how to prepare for and respond to disasters dealing with natural and cultural resources.