Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, many of the gulf coast's historic sites were damaged by flood waters, high winds, and debris. Fort Jackson, a National Historic Landmark only 40 miles from the mouth of the Mississippi River, sustained significant damage due to the storm surge which flooded much of the site. Conservators from the National Park Service were dispatched by ESF #11 – NCH to stabilize the masonry walls and structure, assess the damage done to the site, and suggest actions to stabilize and repair the building for the future.
In addition to extensive damage to the historic buildings of New Orleans, cultural landscapes, such as cemeteries, were also damaged. High winds uprooted trees which disturbed graves and headstones. ESF #11 – NCH sent in personnel to assess the area and to ensure that reburial of remains occurred in a respectful manner, as well as making sure that historic headstones were repaired and remounted. Volunteers also established protective measures to prevent further damage from the elements and other ongoing cleanup activities.
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS), technology has been used by emergency responders to help facilitate response activities. Responders digitally represent locations and link corresponding data, allowing them to communicate vital information in a visual manner. After Hurricane Katrina, responders fanned out through some of the hardest hit areas of New Orleans to collect data on damaged structures.
This information was transferred into a GIS map, presenting a complete picture of the damaged areas of the city, and allowing recommendations to be made on the preservation of damaged historic structures.
High winds and flooding can damage much more than historic structures and natural environments. Museum collections, archival documents, and family heirlooms can all fall victim to the ravages of nature. Photographs, papers, hard drives and museum collections were all damaged after Hurricane Katrina, but due to the expertise and knowledge of responders, many of the damaged items and objects were able to be salvaged and saved.
In the aftermath of an emergency or disaster, it is not uncommon for large amounts of machinery, debris, or populations to be moved around. Many people may have to be relocated to temporary housing sites, while debris that litters urban streets may have to be removed to more remote locations to allow responders access into city centers. Archeologists are used to investigate and to ensure that no archeological remains, artifacts, or resources will be disturbed, damaged or destroyed within designated sites that are also used as temporary housing, site locations or staging areas as part of the response.
Coastal wetlands and waterways, as well as coral reefs, perform an invaluable service of protecting coastal communities and towns by absorbing storm surge and rain runoff that might otherwise cause large scale flooding. After such massive storms, hurricanes, and tsunamis many of these natural areas are damaged and their ability to protect inland communities from future storms is diminished. Studies conducted to assess the health of these natural environments help determine the extent of the damage and suggest steps to aid in the recovery of the natural ecosystem and environment.