Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
1. When will partners be notified about possible ESF #11 NCH activations?
The ESF #11 NCH partner agencies will be involved during pre event planning and after an incident. They will use their network of contacts to gain awareness of the damage and situation pre and post event. Official involvement with partner agencies will not commence until a Mission Assignment (MA) is officially issued. Next, the National Natural and Cultural Resources and Historic Properties (NCH) Coordinator and others involved will notify partner agencies when ESF #11 is activated and inform them of the possibility that they may be needed for NCH activities and they should be prepared.
ESF #11 NCH relies on the skill sets and expertise offered by their partner agencies. When ESF #11 NCH is activated through a MA assigned through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Department of the Interior (DOI) has a chance to review and refine the request submitted by FEMA. At this point, DOI will review the positions needed to fulfill the Mission Assignment, and if the required expertise can be found only with an ESF #11 NCH partner agency, that agency is then contacted and asked to respond to the disaster under ESF #11 NCH.
2. How are support agencies reimbursed for work performed under ESF #11 NCH?
When support agencies are needed to lend their support and expertise to an ESF #11 NCH activation, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), working with the Department of the Interior (DOI), will issue a subtask mission assignment to authorize their activation. Their reimbursement will work much the same way as it will for DOI volunteers. The salary will still be paid by the home office, but travel and overtime work will be reimbursed by FEMA.
3. How do States Request Aid?
The National Response Framework (NRF) is the authority under which the Federal Government actively responds to disaster. Other authorities, such as the National Contingency Plan, can also be used, but ESF #11 NCH would not be activated. To make sure that the NRF has been activated, visit the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) homepage.
Before a State can request assistance from the federal government, the NRF must be activated and the area affected must be declared a disaster area through a Presidential Disaster Declaration. Only once that has occurred can the federal government become involved in responding to the disaster.
When a disaster declaration has been issued by the President, the State approving officer must complete an Action Request Form (ARF). This is a standardized form used by the FEMA designed to gather basic information about the type of damage that has occurred and the kind of assistance needed to respond to the damage.
Once the ARF has been submitted, and FEMA accepts it as a legitimate need, FEMA and the Department of the Interior will work together to identify volunteers that can be deployed to meet the State’s request.