Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
The following are some of the significant cases in this area. They are offered as a start to understanding the issues, and are not intended as a substitute for obtaining legal advice from DOI's Solicitor's Office or private counsel. These summaries are intended neither as a legal analysis regarding specific matters, nor as a complete review of the topic.
Frazee v. Illinois Dept of Employment Security, 489 U.S. 829 S.Ct. 1514 (1989). The Court held that the First Amendment Free Exercise Clause protected the applicant's entitlement to unemployment compensation after the applicant was denied unemployment compensation because he refused, for religious reasons, to work on Sunday.
Welsh v. United States, 398 U.S.333, 90 S.Ct 1792 (1970). The Court held that for a "belief" to be protected under the First Amendment, the belief must be sincere and meaningful.
Ansonia Board of Education v. Philbrook, 479 U.S 60, 107 S.Ct 367 (1986). The Court held that an employer meets the obligations to accommodate employee's religious practice when it offers a reasonable accommodation to the employee and need not show that each of the employee's alternative accommodations would result in undue hardship.
City of Boerne v. Flores, 117 S.Ct. 2157 (1997). Religious Freedom Restoration Act overturned because it is an unwarranted Congressional intrusion into States' traditional prerogatives to pass laws and otherwise govern its citizens.