Mercury's surface in "enhanced color," a color scheme created to emphasize color differences. This is not what Mercury would look like to the human eye, but by applying mathematical analysis to images, color differences can be accentuated beyond those visible to a person.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
The following are some of the significant cases in this area. They are offered as a start to understanding the issues, and are not intended as a substitute for obtaining legal advice from DOI's Solicitor's Office or private counsel. These summaries are intended neither as a legal analysis regarding specific matters, nor as a complete review of the topic.
McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 411 U.S. 792 (1973), is the first case to set out the current test for proving intentional discrimination through indirect evidence. The plaintiff must establish an inference of discrimination by showing that she is a member of a protected group; he applied and was qualified for a job that was open; he was rejected; and the job remained vacant while the employer continued to seek other similarly qualified persons or the employer filled the job with a majority candidate. If the job did not remain open, the plaintiff must show other evidence of discrimination. If this prima facie case is proven by the plaintiff, the employer may then offer evidence of a legitimate, nondiscriminatroy reason for its action. The plaintiff may then counter with evidence that the purported legitimate reason is actually a pretext for discrimination.
Landgraf v. USI Film Products, 511 U.S. 244 S.Ct. 1483 (1994). Decided that compensatory and punitive damages under section 102 of the Civil Rights Act may not be awarded for conduct which occurred before November 21, 1991, even if that conduct was previously unlawful under Title VII.
Robinson v. Shell Oil Co.,519 U.S. 337, 117 S.Ct. 843 (1997). Held that an adverse employment reference was sufficiently important to be actionable under Section 704(a)'s prohibition on retaliation.
Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989); and Furnco Construction Corp. v. Waters, 438 U.S. 567 (1978); Texas Dept of Community Affairs v. Burdine, 450 U.S. 248 (1981); U..S. Postal Service Board of Governors v. Aikens, 460 U.S. 711 (1983); St. Mary's Honor Center v. Hicks, 509 U.S. 502 (1993). In these cases, the Supreme Court set forth a nonexclusive model for resolving claims of intentional discrimination where there is not direct evidence of discriminatory intent even when no longer a current employee
Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424, 91 S.Ct. 849 (1971). The Court held that employment practices which cause a disproportionately adverse impact on the members of a group protected by Title VII are unlawful unless they are job related. There is protection against over discrimination as well as practices that are fair in form but discriminatory in operation.
Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 490 U.s. 642, 1109 S.Ct. 2115 (1989). The Court tightened the standards for proofs of disparate impact. The plaintiff has the burden of identifying the particular practice that caused the disparate impact and proving the causal relationship.