Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
The following are some of the significant cases in this area. They are offered as a start to understanding the issues, and are not intended as a substitute for obtaining legal advice from DOI's Solicitor's Office or private counsel. These summaries are intended neither as a legal analysis regarding specific matters, nor as a complete review of the topic.
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, 515 U.S. 200, 115 S.Ct. 2097 (1995). Supreme Court held that federal affirmative action programs that use racial and ethnic criteria as a basis for decision making are subject to strict judicial scrutiny. Under this standard, such programs must serve a compelling government interest and must be narrowly tailored to serve that interest. Targeted recruitment falls beneath the threshold of this standard, and is always appropriate unless it excludes other groups.
Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education, 476 U.S. 267 (1986) Race-conscious affirmative action by a public agency is subject to "strict scrutiny" level of review, requiring proof of compelling governmental purposes such as providing a remedy for past discrimination.
Piscataway Township Board of Education, Petitioner v. Sharon Taxman, 91 F3d 1547 (3rd. Cir. 1996) cert. dismissed pursuant to Rule 46.1, 118 S. Ct. 595 (1997). the court held that a race-conscious decision to lay off a tenured White teacher instead of an African-American teacher could not be justified by the Board's asserted reliance on the need for racial diversity among the staff at a high school. The court determined that the loss of an employee's job imposes too substantial of a harm to be justified by the goal of promoting diversity, even if the goal were legitimate under Title VII. The case was settled before the Supreme court could rule on the issue.
Saint Francis College v. Al-Khazraji, 481 U.S. 604, 107 S.Ct. 2022 (1987). The concept of race prohibits discrimination against Iraqis and Jews because of their ethnic origins, as opposed to their nationality or religion.
Espinoza v. Farah Mfg. Co., Inc., 414 U.S. 86, 94 S.Ct. 334 (1973). Title 7 proscribes discrimination because of "national origin", which means the country from which your forbearers came.
City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989). Supreme Court held that race-base affirmative action by state and local governments is subject to strict scrutiny.