Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Note: These frequently asked questions are not intended to be legal advice regarding any specific partnership activity, but rather a way to facilitate the Department's consideration of partnership issues. Employees considering partnership legal issues should consult with their supporting Solicitor's Office attorneys early in the process, and often as the partnership is carried out.
What is meant by the term " partnership " as used in the Primer and these Frequently Asked Questions?
Partnerships have the potential to take a very wide variety of forms. The Department recognizes that almost any time that a federal or non-federal individual or entity is working together with the Department, that working relationship may be considered a partnership. However, many of these relationships, such as procurements and contracts, intergovernmental personnel assignments, and individual volunteer relationships, are covered by well-defined and well-established sets of rules. These topics are too broad to be effectively addressed in the Primer or these FAQ's. As a result, the Primer and these FAQ's use the term " partnership " to refer to situations when the Department or its agencies work together with non-federal groups or entities in a cooperative manner to foster the objectives of both parties, in circumstances other than those listed above.
How are these FAQ's organized?
The easiest way to begin to explore the legal and practical aspects of developing, executing, and closing out partnerships is to follow a basic time line: starting with the plan, idea, or proposal for a partnership; through the initial stages of development, including arranging funding, establishing agreements or other means to accomplish the goals, and addressing the practical aspects of how the partnership will perform; considering issues that arise as the partnership operates; and finishing with matters associated with wrapping up partnership activities and terminating the partnership.
The frequently asked questions in this part are organized chronologically along the lines of how a partnership would develop. The FAQ's are designed to help readers use this Primer more effectively. (See other parts for definition of Partnerships and explanations of Partnership-related concepts and authorities).