Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Department of the Interior Acquisition Policy Release (DIAPR) 2008-4
SUBJECT: Purchase Requests
This policy release establishes a Departmentwide requirement for the use of the purchase request form in either IDEAS or the Financial Business Management System (FBMS) when procuring for goods or services over the micro-purchase threshold, as defined in FAR 2.101.
2. Effective Date:
October 1, 2008
3. Expiration Date:
No expiration unless superseded or canceled.
4. Background and Explanation:
Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus and offices involved in the acquisition process have different requirements regarding the use of purchase requests. DOI is attempting to standardize the acquisition process. DOI's transition from one contract writing system (IDEAS) to another (PRISM) via FBMS will help achieve this standardization goal. A purchase request requirement is being initiated to standardize the process within DOI and to support internal controls as required by OMB Circular A-123.
5. Action Required:
Effective immediately, a purchase request must be prepared by the program
equisitioning office in the applicable contract writing system (IDEAS for those bureausoffices not yet implemented on FBMS, and PRISM for those bureausoffices having implemented FBMS) for actions resulting in the following:
• all new acquisition actions, regardless of funding (i.e., new purchase orders, delivery ask orders, blanket purchase agreementscalls, contracts);
• monetary changes to existing acquisition instruments (i.e., funding increases, accounting line changes, deobligations resulting from programmatic requirement shifts or reductions, etc.).
Purchase requests would not be necessary in the following situations: