Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Department of the Interior Acquisition Policy Release (DIAPR) 2004-06
SUBJECT: Departmental Copying Policy
To establish Departmental policy that: (1) distinguishes copying from other types of reproduction work; and (2) specifies the proper circumstances under which copying services may be obtained from commercial sources without requesting and obtaining a waiver from the Governement Printing Office.
2. Effective Date:
This policy is effective immediately.
This policy release shall remain in effect until the following policy is formally incorporated into the Departmental Manual under Part 314, Printing and Publications, and Part 1408 of the Department of the Interior Acquisition Regulation.
4. Background and Explanation:
The Joint Committee on Printing (JCP) printing and binding regulations stipulate that an agency's central printing and publication management organization has authority over the control, production, and procurement of reprographic equipment. For the Department of the Interior, these responsibilities are delegated to the Interior Publishing Council.
The Interior Publishing Council recently drafted, sought and received (on June 17, 2004) GPO concurrence on a Departmentwide policy that distinguishes copying from other types of reproduction work, and specifies the proper circumstances under which copy services may be obtained from commercial sources without requesting and obtaining individual waivers from GPO.
1. Duplicating is the mass reproduction of materials beyond the capabilities of typical office copiers. Volumes are of sufficient mass quantities up to 5000 single page and 25,000 production units in the aggregate of multiple pages. This type of work is usually accomplished through GPO duplicating term contracts or processed through authorized centralized duplicating operations that may have been established for efficiency and cost savings. Such duplicating units shall require Departmental approval processed through the Interior Publishing Council.
2. Copying is further distinguished from “duplicating” in that such work is administrative in nature, produced on office copying equipment, and produced as necessary in limited quantities. Volumes typically range from 1 to 500 single-page production units to 2,500 production units in the aggregate of multiple pages. This volume standard is referred to as the “500/2500” rule.
B. Acquiring Copying Services.
Requirements meeting the copying definition in paragraph A.2 above that cannot be fulfilled through available resources may be referred to a commercial source without seeking GPO approval. Only employees with micropurchase authority may procure copying under these provisions. Qualifying work must meet the following criteria:
A. Quantities must not exceed the “500/2500” copying rule, i.e., you may make up to 500 copies of a single page document, or up to 2,500 total copied pages of a multiple page document, AND
B. Cost not more than $500 and be charged to the employee's purchase card, AND
C. Work is being produced while employee is on official travel or attending a conference, OR
D. Resources, including GPO, are not readily available (e.g., within the immediate area where the work is required to be accomplished) or accessible (e.g., requirements emerge after hours or on weekends) to the employee to obtain the work within the required time frame.
C. Process and Documentation.
These transactions are to be processed using the attached “Copy Work Obtained From A Commercial Source” form to ensure that work produced meets the conditions outlined above. The completed forms will be maintained with the cardholder's purchase card documentation and processed in accordance with internal bureau procedures regarding purchase card transactions. A copy of the completed form must also be provided to the bureau printing officer. All charges are processed under object class 242A – Printing and Reproduction-Commercial.
D. Work Exceeding the “500/2500” Rule.
Reproduction work exceeding the “500/2500” rule is duplicating, and requires a waiver from the nearest servicing GPO office. Employees should consult with their bureau printing officer or Interior Publishing Council representative to secure such a waiver.
6. Action Required:
This policy may be implemented immediately for all appropriate actions. (An amendment will be issued when a DI form number is provided to the attached form.) The Department of the Interior Integrated Charge Card Guide will be amended to include the policy for acquiring copying services.
If you have any questions, please contact Patricia Corrigan of this office on 202-208-1906.