Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
DOI has managed and invested Indian trust funds for tribes and Individual Indian Money beneficiaries for more than 100 years. In 1994, enactment of the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act made it possible for Indian tribes to withdraw their trust funds from DOI for independent management.
Currently, OST manages Indian trust funds. When a tribe withdraws its funds:
They may be invested in a broader range of financial options than those for which OST is authorized.
DOI no longer bears a fiduciary responsibility for those funds.
They may be returned to DOI for management at a later date.
DOI's fiduciary trust responsibility is reinstated if a tribe returns the funds.
Who is eligible to withdraw tribal trust funds?
Any tribe for whom OST manages funds in trust may be eligible to withdraw its funds and manage them independently.
What funds may be withdrawn?
The 1994 Act provides specific authority for tribes to withdraw judgment and settlement funds that are deposited in trust with DOI. Tribes may withdraw other funds held in trust under several other authorities.
Are there restrictions?
There are a number of requirements for withdrawal under the 1994 Act. There also may be specific statutory restrictions. For example, an act of Congress or settlement agreement may require certain funds to remain in trust. All restrictions are explained in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Chapter 25, Part 1200
What is the withdrawal process?
The Code of Federal Regulations defines how tribes may withdraw their funds from trust, how to return funds to trust, and how to request assistance to prepare plans to manage the funds when removed from OST management. A tribe must submit several documents to OST, including:
Copy of the formal agreement between the tribe and the proposed manager of the funds, unless the funds are managed in-house
Tribal Management Plan that includes investment goals, strategies and information on the individuals and institutions that will be involved in the investment and/or management of the funds
After an application is determined to be complete, OST has 90 days to review and evaluate the withdrawal request. Following the review, OST provides DOI with a recommendation on the application. To request an application package to withdraw tribal funds, do one of the following: