Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Indian Trust Self-Governance and Self-Determination Programs
In the early 1970s, Congress passed the Indian Self Determination and Education Assistance Act that allowed Indian tribes and tribal organizations to acquire increased control over the management of federal programs that impact their members, resources and governments. These agreements are referred to as "638 compacts and contracts."
Contracts and compacts are very similar. Self-Determination contracts are authorized under the 1975 Indian Self Determination and Education Assistance Act. Self-Governance compacts are made possible by 1994 amendments to the 1975 Indian Self Determination and Education Assistance Act.
DOI has long supported tribal sovereignty, self-governance and self-determination efforts and continues to encourage tribes to assume the management of eligible programs through self-governance compacts or self-determination contracts.OST's responsibilities include management and administration of two programs that are eligible for tribal contracting or compacting:
Appraisals, or value assessments, are important elements to the many different types of trust land usage agreements. Some of the transactions that require appraisals include commercial, industrial, recreational and other leases; rights-of-way permits; land sales and land exchanges; grazing and range permits; and assessment of trespass damages. Appraisers place a value on trust assets according to professional standards and regulatory requirements so that Indian land owners receive fair value. Tribes, or a consortium of tribes, can administer their own appraisal services through an agreement negotiated with OST.
Beneficiary Processes Program (financial trust services)
For every account held in trust by the United States, OST is responsible for financial trust services such as collection of income, accurate accounting, disbursal of funds and maintenance of current beneficiary information. These roles are managed by OST's Office of Trust Funds Management. Tribes, or a consortium of tribes, can contract or compact to assume a portion of the administration of Individual Indian Money (IIM) financial trust services through an agreement negotiated with OST.