Mercury's surface in "enhanced color," a color scheme created to emphasize color differences. This is not what Mercury would look like to the human eye, but by applying mathematical analysis to images, color differences can be accentuated beyond those visible to a person.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
Principal DeputyAssistant Secretary – Indian Affairs
United States Department of the Interior
Senate Committee on Indian Affairs
S. 1345, Spokane Tribe of Indians of the Spokane Reservation Grand Coulee
Dam Equitable Compensation Settlement Act
October 20, 2011
Chairman Akaka, Vice-Chairman Barrasso, and Members of the Committee, my name is Del Laverdure, and I am the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary – Indian Affairs.Thank you for the opportunity to present the Administration's views on S. 1345, the Spokane Tribe of Indians of the Spokane Reservation Grand Coulee Dam Equitable Compensation Settlement Act.
S. 1345 would provide compensation to the Spokane Tribe of Indians for the use of its land for the generation of hydropower by the Grand Coulee Dam.Specifically, S. 1345 would require the Secretary of the Interior to deposit $99.5 million over 5 years, $23,900,000 for fiscal year 2012 and $18,900,000 for the following 4 fiscal years, into a trust fund held by the United States Treasury for the Spokane Tribe.
The Department is encouraged by significant progress made in recent months toward resolving issues of concern to the Administration, however, the Administration cannot support S. 1345 in its current form.
As an example of the significant progress, the Department supports the removal of the land transfer provisions that had been included in prior legislation.Section 9 (a) of S. 1345, "Delegation of Authority," presents an alternative approach for addressing the Spokane Tribe's interest in reestablishing its law enforcement authorities within the boundaries of the Spokane Reservation.While the Department supports the concept of providing a clear delegation of authority to the Tribe to achieve its law enforcement goals, we are concerned that the language in S. 1345 is overbroad and could be construed to delegate more than just the authority intended by the Tribe. The Department is willing to work with the Committee or the Tribe to craft acceptable language for this provision, and, alternatively, is willing to accomplish the intent of this provision of the legislation administratively through a written delegation letter from the Secretary to the Spokane Tribe.
With regard to Section 5 of S. 1345, "Settlement Fund," the basis for this settlement has not been established by a legal claim of the Spokane Tribe.Since the Spokane Tribe has no legal claim, the Department does not believe this legislation is appropriate as a settlement of claims. However, the Department could examine with the Tribe and Congress other avenues to address the concerns of the Spokane Tribe.
Finally, although the Department is concerned with this legislation being styled as a settlement act, settlement acts generally should include a provision that requires the Tribal government to ratify and approve this legislation as a complete settlement prior to the Act becoming effective.
The Department, in consultation with the Bonneville Power Administration, would be pleased to work with the Committee on substitute language or amendments to the legislation that we believe could meet the needs of the Spokane Tribe and the United States.