Mount Rushmore National Memorial under construction.
The workers had to endure conditions that varied from blazing hot to bitterly cold and windy. Each day they climbed 700 stairs to the top of the mountain to punch-in on the time clock. Then 3/8 inch thick steel cables lowered them over the front of the 500-foot face of the mountain in a "bosun chair." Despite the dangers, no one was killed during the project.
Otters in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
The sea otter population of Glacier Bay has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Ecologists consider sea otters a keystone species here. Otters consume vast quantities of clams, urchins, crabs, and other invertebrates and their presence creates ripples through the ecosystem. NPS photo.
Every day someone like you becomes a wildland wildfire fighter, a teacher, a trail-builder, a museum curator, or a park ranger. Discover your opportunities in national parks. Come to play. Come to learn. Come to serve. Develop your environmental leadership skills. Find a job. Be the next generation to preserve and protect these great places.
With more than 80% of Americans living in urban areas, urban parks are more important than ever. The father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, said of urban parks:
It is one great purpose of the Park to supply to the hundreds of thousands of tired workers, who have no opportunity to spend their summers in the country, a specimen of God's handiwork that shall be to them, inexpensively, what a month or two in the White Mountains or the Adirondacks is, at great cost, to those in easier circumstances.
OF THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES
CONCERNING S. 3148,
TO MODIFY THE BOUNDARY OF THE OREGON CAVES NATIONAL MONUMENT, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
July 30, 2008
Mr. Chairman, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you to present the views of the Department of the Interior on S. 3148, a bill to modify the boundary of the Oregon Caves National Monument, and for other purposes.
The Department supports the intent of S. 3148 as consistent with the General Management Plan (GMP) for the park but recommends deferring action on the bill to give us the opportunity to explore ways to maintain continuity and interagency coordination on issues related to forest health and recreational opportunities.
S. 3148 would adjust the boundary of the Oregon Caves National Monument to include the addition of approximately 4,070 acres to enhance the protection of the resources associated with the monument and to increase public recreation opportunities. The lands that would be added are currently managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Siskiyou National Forest.
In 1907, the Secretary of the Interior withdrew approximately 2,560 acres for the purposes of establishing a national monument. The 1909 presidential proclamation establishing Oregon Caves National Monument included only 480 acres. The monument was managed by the U.S. Forest Service until its administration was transferred to the National Park Service in 1933. The remaining withdrawal outside of the monument is administered by the USFS as part of the Siskiyou National Forest. This bill restores these lands to the monument boundary.
There would be no acquisition costs associated with the boundary expansion and while a formal estimate has not yet been established, we anticipate National Park Service's management, administrative, interpretive, resource protection, and maintenance costs could be approximately $300,000 - $750,000 annually.
The explorer Joaquin Miller extolled "The Wondrous marble halls of Oregon!" when speaking about the newly proclaimed Oregon Caves National Monument in 1909. Oregon Caves is one of the few marble caves in the country that is accessible to the public. This park, tucked up in the winding roads of southern Oregon, is known for its remoteness, the cave majesty, and the unusual biota. The park is located in the Siskiyou Mountains and is part of a bioregion that has among the nation's highest biodiversities of vascular plants and animals – more than is found even in the tropics. The high rate of biodiversity is due to the diverse temperatures, moisture regimes, climates, bedrock, and productivity. The serpentine caves, cliffs, streams, springs and granitic formations seem to be just the right size for diversity – not so large that rare plants will continue to propagate, but not too small that extinction is high or migrants cannot find it.
The stream flowing from the cave entrance is a tributary to a watershed that empties into the Pacific Ocean. There are no human-made obstructions that would prevent salmon migration, which makes this the only cave in the National Park Service with an unobstructed link to the ocean.
The caves are nationally significant and a favorite visit for school kids and travelers alike. They remain alive and healthy because of the watershed above them. The park recognized this when developing the 1998 GMP and accompanying Environmental Impact Statement. The plan recommended the inclusion of the watershed into the park to provide for better cave protection and to protect the surface and subsurface hydrology and the public water supply. Because of changes in the recreational use of the lands since that time, additional discussions with the USFS are warranted.
S. 3148 would designate approximately 7.6 miles of these waterways as wild, scenic, or recreational under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, including the first subterranean designated waterway in the country, the River Styx, which flows through the caves. This designation provides no additional protections to land and water resources.
S. 3148 also provides authority for the Secretary to protect the water quality – in the caves and for public consumption – and to administer the lands in accordance with current laws and regulations. The Secretary is also directed to carry out ecological forest restoration activities that would establish a fire regime, manage revegetation projects, and reduce the risk of losing key ecosystem components. The land that this bill would transfer is categorized by the U.S. Forest Service as condition class 3 – high risk of fire. Most of it is also designated as Late Successional Reserve under the Northwest Forest Plan. We understand that the Forest Service is currently working on a multi-year effort to reduce fuels under a comprehensive forest plan which is intended to help restore the appropriate role of fire in the ecosystem, which in turn would benefit monument resources that are at risk from fire and fire suppression damage.
Section 7 of S. 3148 provides for voluntary relinquishment of grazing leases or permits by permittees to the Secretary of the Interior for authorized grazing on BLM-managed lands within the Billy Mountain Grazing Allotment. Under the bill, the Secretary is required to accept the donation of those permits or leases from grazing.
The Billy Mountain Grazing Allotment is located 15 miles from the OCNM boundary, and the proposed legislation does not identify a clear link between this allotment and the monument. This grazing allotment has been designated under the Medford Resource Management Plan, and subsequent changes in designation are possible through the land use planning process if land and resource data indicate that grazing should no longer be supported on this allotment.
The BLM is opposes this provision. However, the BLM also recognizes the value of working cooperatively and collaboratively with local stakeholders to fulfill its multiple use mission on BLM lands.
While the transfer of these lands to the National Park Service would increase interpretive and educational opportunities for visitors, the Department finds it important to acknowledge and bring to the committee's attention a current recreational activity that would be affected by enactment of this legislation. Hunting is allowed by the U.S. Forest Service on the lands in question. As currently drafted, the legislation would extend the monument boundaries in a manner that prohibits continuation of hunting on these lands. The Department supports continuation of the diverse and traditional recreation opportunities on these lands
To insure issues affecting the current forest health activities and recreational opportunities on the lands are adequately considered, we recommend the committee defer action on the legislation at this time. We will continue our discussions with the U.S. Forest Service on these matters.
Should the committee decide to move ahead on the legislation, the Department recommends one technical amendment to the language involving the transfer of the land from one Federal agency to another.
Mr. Chairman, this concludes my statement. I would be happy to answer any questions that you may have.
Suggested technical amendment to S. 3148
On page 5, line 14, after "transfer" insert "administrative jurisdiction of"