Partnership Opportunities for Federally Associated Collections

Austin, Texas
November 13-15, 2000
Sponsored by

U.S. Department of Interior and
Texas Association of Museums

Conference information including program and registration materials

DOI Papers


WORKSHOPS WORKSHOP --Permit Me: Federal permits, international conventions, and the management of Federally-associated collections. A short course for museum and agency professionals

WORKSHOP --2- Day–Managing Your Photographic Collections


Title: The Relationship of NAGPRA Cultural Items and Collections Defined under 36CRF79 and DOI 411DM, "Managing Museum Property"
Panelist: Myra J. Giesen, Physical Anthropologist with the Office of Policy, Bureau of Reclamation, and Reclamation's Museum Property Coordinator
Bobbie Ferguson, Lead Cultural Resources Specialist and Reclamation's Museum Property Coordinator, Technical Services Center, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver Colorado

As agencies have focused their efforts on meeting the requirements of NAGPRA, the fact the NAGPRA cultural items remain part of their museum collections until repatriation occurs frequently has been misunderstood or ignored. This paper discusses the legal status of human remains (which cannot be owned) and the funerary objects associated with them and the place of these items within collections. The paper also explores standards for the care of all NAGPRA cultural items under federal control.

Title: Department of the Interior Collections Ownership Policy, The Sequel
Panelist: Bobbie Ferguson, Lead Cultural Resources Specialist and Reclamation's Museum Property Coordinator, Technical Services Center, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver Colorado

At the Second Conference on Partnership Opportunities for Federally Associated Collections in San Diego, the author reported on the Department of the Interior's development of policy on the ownership of its collections, including the results of research on the ownership of materials collected under the River Basin Survey program (RBS). This paper discusses 1) the process and results of additional research on the RBS material requested by Interior's Rocky Mountain Regional Solicitor's office after review of the proposed policy and associated documentation and 2) the status of Interior collections ownership policy development.
Title: Managing Archeological Collections: An Online Course
Panelist: S. Terry Childs, Archeology & Ethnography Program, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

"Managing Archeological Collections: An Online Course" is a web-based long distance learning effort designed to help teach several audiences about managing archeological collections in the field, the laboratory, the office, and the repository. It is designed for archeology students and professionals, museum professionals who want to better understand the relationships of collections in their care to archeological fieldwork , and federal and state agency managers who make important decisions about the care of archeological collections. This paper presents the highlights of the course, considerations of its implementation, how it is being received by its intended audiences, and what can be learned by this sort of effort.

Title: Pluggin In: what we have learned in making Collections Data available on the World Wide Web
Panelist: Sherry Kay Pittam, Oregon State University, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Corvallis, Oregon

Communicating collections information is a major goal of collections managers. The Internet provides an ideal medium for delivery of this type of data. Working with academic and government researchers we have developed Web deliverable query pages using high-performance databases. The pages are interactive, attractive, and easy to use. We will explore our experiences working with scientists of disparate computer skills levels. We will discuss how we have developed a coalition bringing hardware, infrastructure and computer professionals together with collections managers. We will propose a broader partnership which will enable collections to be more easily made web accessible through shared resources.

Title: Present Your Data on the Web
Panelist: Frank Joseph Hanus, Oregon State University, Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering, Corvallis, Oregon

We have developed methods and specialized software uniquely suited for web access to collections databases. The software minimizes the use of restrictive and arcane computer languages. We will present a demonstration of the power of this approach and will explain the underlying technology of several biological data web sites. Each project was publicly funded and held collections information that was of broad interest. The collections range from entomological to mycological and botanical and vary widely in size. We will explain how this freely available technology can be useful to collections managers and curators.

Title: The Department of Defense Archaeological Curation Assessment Project
Panelist: Kristen Marino, Archaeologist, U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis, MO.

Since the early 1990's, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District has been performing a national assessment of the curation of Department of Defense and Corps' archaeological collections. The study has focused on (1) the quantity, nature, location, and condition of artifacts and associated documentation, and (2) the condition and suitability of the repositories in which the collections are stored. This paper summaries the results of this national curation project, and discusses the techniques and methods used to assess the capabilities of facilities to curate archaeological collections to the standards of care outlined in the federal regulation 36 CFR Part 79.

Title: Scattered to the Four Winds: Tracking Archaeological Collections
Panelist: Eugene Marino, Archaeologist, U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis, MO.

A recently completed national inventory of Department of Defense archaeological collections has shed light on the degree of scattering that can befall even the smallest amount of archaeological materials. Archaeological collections, especially those generated from federal lands, are mandated by law to follow a particular life history. This history should include everything from excavation to publication to proper curation. Given this life history, the movement of any given archaeological collection should be fairly easy to follow. However, research presented here suggests that this life history is anything but certain and that federal collections can sometimes travel hundreds or even thousands of miles from their points of origin or be lost altogether.

Title: Managing DoD Archaeological Data: A Web-Based Distributed Database Approach
Panelist: James Barnes, Archaeologist, U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis, MO.

Department of Defense installation cultural resource manages have, among others, two disparate duties: 1) coordinating with engineering and construction projects to ensure compliance with Section 106, and 2) managing the long-term curation of previously recovered archaeological collections. Traditionally, these two duties have been separated with little attention to curation once compliance is achieved. The Legacy Resource Management Program has funded the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of Archaeological Collections (MCX-CMAC) to develop an approach to collections management database management. MCX-CMAC is currently developing a database system that integrates spatial archaeological site data with artifact and archive databases to link curated collections to the sites from which they were derived.. The system will utilize GIS and web-browser technology to link databases on-post with those maintained at curation facilities and headquarters to achieve efficiencies in populating and maintaining data.

Title: The Paper Behind the Artifact: Rehabilitating Archaeological Documentation in Practice
Panelist: Amy McPherson, Historian, U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis, MO.

Beginning with the Antiquities Act in 1906 and repeatedly addressed in several subsequent laws and regulations, the federal government has sought to set standards of care for archaeological materials and associated documentation. Most recently, strict curation standards were outlined in 36CFR Part 79, Curation of Federally-Owned or Administered Archeological Collections (1990). All too often records associated with the investigation of archaeological resources are neglected; artifacts and records (which together form collections) are often separated among repositories, no special care is provided for the documents, or no additional copies of the records are produced for separate - secured - storage. The result is a growing national concern for artifacts without well-documented context and provenance, without which artifacts have little research value. A current Department of Defense pilot rehabilitation program, in conjunction with Service command–or installation–funded rehabilitation projects, is addressing the proper storage requirements of archaeological documentation. This paper summarizes the overall Department of Defense pilot program and the associated methods and standards for rehabilitating archaeological documentation.

Title: Implementing Partnerships: Key Elements Derived from a Pilot Project
Panelist: Ken Shingleton, Archaeologist, U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis

The Department of Defense (DoD) Pilot Partnership Implementation Project, which began in 1999, focuses on identifying specific costs, procedures, and problems associated with implementing partnerships for the purpose of curating DoD archaeological collections. Although the project is still ongoing, this paper presents several elements determined key to resource planning and decision making, including institutional stability, mission, and resource base. In addition, economic cost-benefit analysis is presented as a tool to optimize curation solutions and associated costs.

Title: Establishing Formal Agreements
Panelist: Dr. Marc Kodack, Archaeologist, U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis, MO.

Creating formal agreements between repositories and federal agencies for curating federally owned or administered archaeological collections is an important step to ensure long-term management of these resources. This paper presents a review of the service procurement methods currently in use by federal managers.

Title: The Texas Accreditation Program for Museums and Repositories that Manage and Care for Held-in-Trust Archaeological Collections
Panelist: Dr. Eileen Johnson, Curator of Anthropology, Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas
Susan Baxevanis, Collections Manager of Anthropology, Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas
Dr. Jim Bruseth, Archeology Division, Texas Historical Commission, Austin, Texas
Sue Linder-Linsley, Director Collections Management, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas
Valerie Butler, Research Aide, Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas

The Texas accreditation program is the first state-based program in the country to accredit archaeological collections care facilities. The program was developed by the Accreditation and Review Council (ARC), a unit of the Council of Texas Archeologists (CTA), to aide in the continual care and management of archaeological collections housed in the State of Texas. Guidelines exist for the care and management of federal collections, but an on-site mechanism is lacking to evaluate how those collections are cared for and ensure standards are being met. The ARC program is the first that institutes guidelines and evaluates institutions that house Held-in-Trust archaeological collections, including state-associated collections. The Texas Historical Commission has adopted ARC accreditation as a tool to evaluate the welfare of their permitted archaeological collections. In order to continue to receive Held-in-Trust collections for the state of Texas, the applicant museum/repository must be accredited by ARC.

The session addresses the process of ARC accreditation, policy development and legal protection for institutions, the roll of ARC in the Texas Historical Commission's stewardship of state-permitted collections, an example of how the accreditation process may affect a repository, and the results of a national study on the care and management of Held-in-Trust collections throughout the country.

Title: Policy Development and Legal Protection for Institutions Housing Collections
Panelist: Susan Bazevanis, Collections Manager, Anthropology, Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas

The development and adoption of written policies by an institution provides guidelines for action and legal protection to that institution. This review examines the policies that are essential for an institution housing collections, how they should be developed, and the benefits of having such policies in place. Specifically discussed will be the policies required by the Accreditation and Review Council, particularly the Collection Management Policy, its contents, and legal ramifications.

Title: Developing the Texas-Based Accreditation Program for Cultural Facilities.
Panelist: Dr. Eileen Johnson, Curator of Anthropology, Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas

The Texas-based Accreditation and Review Council accreditation program is modeled after the national American Association of Museums' accreditation program but adapted to accommodate all curatorial facilities, more focused on collection's care and management, and expanded to include field reviewer training and professional development workshops. While having a lengthy development period, the accreditation program is in operation now with a field review completed and several applicant curatorial facilities and field reviews expected over the coming months. The process from curatorial facility application, through self-evaluation, field review, to deliberation by the Council is projected to take 12 to 18 months.

Title: Effects of the Texas-based ARC Accreditation Program
Panelist: Sue Linder-Linsley, Director, Collections Management, Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas

This paper is an overview of a private institution's reception of the program. Accreditation advantages and problem issues faced by a repository preparing to seek accreditation will be presented along with some recommendations for greater recognition of stewardship and held-in-trust obligations.

Title: The Texas Accreditation Program: The Perspective from the Texas Historical Commission
Panelist: Dr. Jim Bruseth, Archeology Division, Texas Historical Commission, Austin, Texas

This paper provides background information on efforts made by the Texas Historical Commission to require that cultural resource management projects conducted under state law properly curate collections. Also, the paper presents the THC's perspective on the current efforts being made by the Council of Texas Archeologist's to develop a state repository accreditation program and how the THC will use the accreditation program to achieve a better level of collection management.

Title: The Current Status of Held-in Trust Collections in the United States
Panelist: Valerie Butler, Research Aide, Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas

A national survey was sent to State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPO) regarding the care of Held-in-Trust collections for their state, the results of which will be presented. In addition, a study was compiled of State laws regarding Held-in-Trust collections and the care that is being provided. The results from this study will address the status of current responsibility for these collections, the care that is provided nationwide, and the nature of Held-in Trust collections in the United States today.

Title: Workshop :Permit Me: Federal permits, international conventions, and the management of Federally-associated collections. A short course for museum and agency professionals
Panelist: Sally Y. Shelton, Collections Officer, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, George Washington University Museum Studies Program

Museum professionals are often confused by the complexity of permits requirements; permitting agency personnel are often unsure what museums do and why. This session is designed to give museum and agency personnel an overview of laws and regulations affecting the collecting, transportation, possession and use of museum specimens and objects. The interrelated roles and responsibilities of the agencies charged with regulation and enforcement will be presented, as will the complex and changing roles of museum-based collections as support resources for those agencies. Emphasis is placed on the issues affecting cultural and natural history collections at the Federal and international levels.

Title: Fossil Vertebrate Resources: An Outreach to Native Americans
Panelist: David D. Parris, Curator of Natural History, New Jersey State Museum, Trenton, NJ.
Sally Y. Shelton, Collections Officer, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.

In 1995, the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology's Outreach Committee initiated an offer of cooperation to Native American organizations. The Committee's prime objective is to encourage amateur and professional interest in paleontology. There is particular concern for evaluation and preservation of fossil resources on Native American lands, and for their utilization for the greatest possible benefits to the tribes and to science. Tribal organizations are encourage to accept this offer of assistance, especially as many tribes are creating their own museums. Results from some Northern Plains tribes have been good, but broader participation is desirable.

Title: Yes, We Have Archaeology in San Diego
Panelist: Cindy T. Stankowski, Director, San Diego Archaeological Center, San Diego, CA

Since opening in 1998, the San Diego Archaeological Center has made archaeological collections available to the public with exhibits, special events, internships, lectures, workshops and school age programs. The Center has raised awareness of archaeology in San Diego and encouraged the public to demand their archeological legacy be preserved. This presentation provides a synopsis of the public side of curation at the San Diego Archaeological Center.

Title: Direction, Guidance and Control: Your Collections Management Policy
Panelist: Cindy T. Stankowski, Director, San Diego Archaeological Center, San Diego, CA

A properly written collections management policy can help your organization make the difficult decisions regarding collections that will invariable occur such as: How do you get rid of a box of rust? What if your loaned object doesn't get returned? Who can have access to your collections? 36 CFR Part 79 provides a starting template for designing a policy, and experience from the museum field can provide the finishing touches to a policy that will help you make the right decisions for your collections.

Title: Profiling Collections: Leveraging real Collection Data
Panelist: Cheryl Bright, Collections Manager, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
Rusty Russell, Collections Manager, Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
Sally Y. Shelton, Collections Officer, Research and Collections Directorate, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.

In 1999, the National Museum of Natural History initiated planning for a process designed to give a quantifiable index to the physical state, priorities and needs of its collections. This profiling process, modified from a successful model pioneered by the NMNH Department of Entomology, is a first attempt to develop a numerical reporting system for use by NMNH and other Smithsonian Institution decision-makers. The profile results will be used to measure annual progress, prioritize collections needs and management approaches, and justify increases n collections management funding.

Title:Redefining Who We Are and What We Do
Panelist: Dr. Mary Collins, Assistant Director of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University

Although the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University has curated federal archaeological collections for decades, we have only recently become a formal partner with several agencies. In this short time the character and quantity of use of these collections has changed significantly. Given our academic setting, most of this use has been associated with research projects conducted by students and scholars of Plateau prehistory. However, increased attempts to reach other interest groups is yielding positive results. Changes in how our collections are used has required us to remain flexible about our individual and institutional roles with regard to our students, the agencies we work with, local tribes, and the general public. This paper will summarize our experiences to date.

Title: Collecting The Collections: Cultural Resources collections assessment in Southeast Washington
Panelist: Paula Johnson, RPA, Collections Specialist, Paragon Research Associates, Seattle, Washington

Paragon Research Associates completed Collections Assessments under contract with the Colville Confederated Tribes to identify and locate the archaeological collections made within the region. Collections had been made under a variety of auspices, conditions, and levels of professionalism, including salvage operations, since 1947. The Corps of Engineers and the Walla Walla Cooperative Group, made up of five tribes in the region, presumed many of the collections to be inadequately evaluated and/or curated. The Collections Assessments benefited the rich archaeology of the region, aided the Corps in complying with 36 CFR Part 79, and salvaged some of salvage archaeology's distinct collections.

Title: From Dirt to Disk: Finding, Using and Saving Archaeological Collections Data
Panelist: Victoria Atkins, Archaeologist, Bureau of Land Management ,Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, CO

Contextual and analytical data pertaining to federal artifacts and specimens held in the public trust is often underestimated in its daily research value and long term preservation needs. As stated recently in the BBC News: "the irony is that archaeological information held in magnetic format is decaying faster than it ever did in the ground" (W. Killbride, University of York, 2/23/2000).
Using examples of four ongoing data conversion projects from large federal collections of the American Southwest, this paper focuses on practical suggestions for accessing databases from private organizations and converting data into museum management software. These projects are supported by grants from Colorado State Historic Fund and from Save America's Treasures Millennium Fund.

Title: Enhancing Research Access of Archaeological Collections
Panelist: Susan Thomas, Curator, Bureau of Land Management-Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, CO

The Bureau of Land Management-Anasazi Heritage Center received grant funds from the Colorado State Historic Fund and from Save America's Treasures Millennium Fund to enhance the access of federal archaeological collections from southwest Colorado. These projects have involved working with non-federal institutions and researchers to identify and retrieve, when necessary, collections that are in need of curatorial attention. The collections and data are being incorporated into a single computerized data base that will enhance the research and educational efforts within the Northern San Juan region.

Title: The Last Step: Incorporating collections and information into gallery exhibits
Panelist: LouAnn Jacboson, Director, Bureau of Land Management-Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, CO

The Bureau of Land Management-Anasazi Heritage Center completed two projects that enhance educational and research access of collections and collections data. These are: 1) A CD-ROM that takes the user on a walking tour through Lowry Pueblo. This project was the cooperative effort of Native Americans, archaeologists, private contractors, the Colorado State Historical Fund, and the Anasazi Heritage Center. 2) A digital photo archive that provides access to over 300 photos that document collections and excavations at Lowry Pueblo. Many of the photos are field documentation and artifacts currently stored at the Chicago Field Museum, which provided access for this project.

Title: Documenting the Use of Curated Archeological Collections
Panelist: Eugene M. Futato, Curator of Archaeological Collections, University of Alabama Museums

In the face of reduced agency and institutional budgets, shortages of space, and other pressures, it is becoming increasingly important to document the utility of curated archaeological collections. Such documentation is also an important part of the repository's stewardship and reporting responsibilities. The Office of Archaeological Services collects this information in a variety of ways. Among these are: visiting researcher's sign-in sheets, telephone logs, a database of opened repository boxes, loan forms, and a collections research bibliography. This paper provides an overview of these methods and summarizes patterns of collections used from the past several years of data

Title: Accessible Collections on a Shoestring Budget
Panelist: Ann Molineux, PhD, Collections Manager, Texas Memorial Museum, Austin, Texas

Texas has a rich and interesting history of geological research. Almost four million specimens from this research are housed at TMM. These important collections are not readily accessible to researchers, educators, or the public. TMM has begun to computerize the collection, including specimen inventory, catalogues and related data, and images of original labels and important specimens. Digital records currently are only available in the lab and collection areas, but will be available on the Internet in the future, together with visitor and loan requests. Support comes from IMLS, University of Texas Department of Geological Sciences Geology foundation, TMM and enthusiastic volunteers.

Title: Brainstorming about Accrediting or Certifying Repositories with Archeological Collections
Panelist: S. Terry Childs, Archeology & Ethnography Program, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

Federal regulations for archeological collections, 36 CFR 79, set out basic standards to ensure that federally owned and administered archeological collections, including associated records, are deposited in repositories that have the capability to provide adequate long-term curatorial services. Unfortunately, no system to accredit or certify the repositories that meet these standards was developed in relation to the regulations. This is a brainstorming session about the need to develop such a system and how it might be done, especially in collaboration with existing programs of the American Association of Museum.

Title: The Benefits of an Accreditation or Certification Program from the Federal Perspective
Panelist: Michael K. Trimble, Supervisory Archeologist, Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of Archeological Collections.

The Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of Archeological Collections of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has done extensive curation needs assessments of federal archeological collections for the Department of Defense over recent years. During this effort the need for a system to accredit or certify repositories that meet the standards set forth in 36 CFR Part 79 become readily apparent. This paper discusses the needs revealed by our assessments and some ideas on how a system of accreditation or certification might be implemented from the federal perspective.

Title: Curation from Scratch through a Tactic of Self-Accreditation
Panelist: Cindy Stankowski, Director, San Diego Archaeological Center, San Diego, CA

The San Diego Archaeological Center is a private, nonprofit repository established solely for the curation of archaeological collections. Because a model for this type of facility did not exist at its inception, the Center borrowed from other disciplines to create a strategy for the care, management and use of collections in accordance with 36 CFR Part 79, National Park Service recommendations, NAGPRA, culturally affiliated Native American and ethnic group advice and professional museum/archival practices. This "hybrid" organization successfully "self accredited" itself with local, state and Federal agencies because on formal accreditation standards exist.

Title: AAM Accreditation and the Museum Assessment Program: Tolls for Repositories
Panelist: Elizabeth Merritt, Assistant Director for Museum Advancement & Excellence, American Association of Museums

Museums have many reasons for keeping informed of current standards and best practices in the field, and for measuring themselves against these benchmarks. One impetus is the desire to meet the requirements to serve as a repository for federally-associated collections. This paper discusses the role that AAM Accreditation and the Museum Assessment Program (MAP) can play in this process. Both programs draw upon AAM's ongoing research into standards and best practices, and use a process of self-study and peer review to assess museum operations.

Title: Charting a New Course for Naval History
Panelist: Ms. Dawn Hopkins, Senior Management Analyst, Public Services, KPMG Consulting, LLC, Lorton, VA
CDR Web Freeman, SC, USN Department of the Navy, Heritage Assets Accountability Project Manager, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations & Environment), Arlington, VA

Networked environments present opportunities and challenges for the cultural heritage community. The past five years have been the most rapid and productive times for new developments in Internet technology. New hardware and software developments, the rapid growth of local and global networks, and digital imaging, enable cultural institutions to share information in ways that were not previously possible. There is now more opportunity to share information, to seek new audiences and continue to educate and preserve the rich history represented by our unique collections.

Taking advantage of networked environments presents many challenges. The near-absence of standards of formation has lead to divergent documentation practices in museums, archives, and libraries. This obstacle has lead to confusion and coexisting strategies to collecting, gathering and presenting information about cultural heritage collections.

As a result of the new Federal Accounting standards this paper presents aspects of an ongoing project within the Department of the Navy (DoN) in conjunction with KPMG Consulting, LLC to identify the best solution for consolidating all DoN Heritage Asset collections under an automated management and reporting system. In doing so this has presented many opportunities to improve the management of DoN collections. Some of these improvements are:

• New software selection moving form manual systems and simple database structures to a collections and record management system.
• Building standard field cataloguing structures.
• Building nomenclature list specific to Navy and Marine Corp collections
• Rewriting/updating/reviewing collections management policies and procedures
• Building a secure Intranet structure to provide access across collections for standard reporting purposes and use by researcher, curators, and other Federal collection managers.

The goal of this effort is to put in policies systems and processes that enhance the capabilities of our museum professionals to manage their collections, facilitate compliance with heritage asset reporting requirements under applicable Federal Accounting Standards, encourage accreditation of our museums and programs, and provide the public with on-line access to DoN heritage collections.

Title: Re-Thinking the Way We Do Business, Heritage Assets Reporting In the Department of the Navy
Panelist: CDR Web Freeman, SC, USN Department of the Navy, Heritage Assets Accountability Project Manager, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations & Environment), Arlington, VA
Mr. Rick Albertson, KPMG Consulting, LLC, Lorton, VA

The Department of the Navy (DoN) maintains unique collections of materials and properties related to U.S. Naval history. As an agency of the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Executive Branch we are subject to a myriad of regulations mandated by statute, Executive Order, and internal DoD and DoN requirements. Recent revisions to the Federal Accounting Standards to include requirements for "Heritage Assets" (HA) reporting have pushed DoN to evaluate its current business processes within the HA community and to re-think our entire method of operation.

Oversight and management of the DoN Heritage Assets accountability project was delegated by the Secretary of the Navy to the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations and Environment). Having no significant previous experience in dealing with collections this office was not burdened with preconceptions as to how the process did or should work. Working closely with DoN museum, archive, cultural resource communities, and KPMG Consulting, LLC we were able to develop and propose reporting criteria to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) which was ultimately accepted and promulgated as the DoD reporting standard and incorporated into the applicable DoD instructions for HA reporting.

Further analysis revealed a need for implementation of standards and standardization within the DoN HA communities to make our program effective and credible. The program has two principle objectives: 1) Single point, automated reporting of HA data required by Federal Accounting Standards, and 2) facilitate management of DoN HA collections. This paper presents insights and information on the hurdles and successes experienced to date in our quest toward these objectives, specifically:

• Defining Heritage Assets within DoN/DoD.
• "Materiality" as a function of HA reporting
• Condition reporting on large, diverse collections.
• Establishing standards/standardization
• Life cycle funding support

Title: Workshop– 2- Day--Managing Your Photographic Collections
Panelist: Lauire A. Baty, Chief Branch of Museum Services, Department of the Interior, Washington D.C.
Richard Pearce-Moses, Photograph Archivist, Heard Museum and Coordinator of the Cultural Inventory Project at the Arizona Department of Library, Archives and Public Records

This two-day workshop presents ways to manage photographic collections effectively, allowing maximum access while preserving the photographs for future exhibitions and research. Photographic collections are among the most heavily used resources for preserving bureau history, supporting resource management activities and enhancing bureau interpretation. Using advance readings, lecture, discussion and exercises, the instructors will address the following subjects: identification and dating of materials; special problems of graphic materials; gaining control of large quantities of materials; arrangement and description; preservation; reference and access.

Title: The U.S.G.S. National Paleontologic Database
Panelist: Bruce R. Wardlaw, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA
Nancy R. Stamm, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA
David R. Soller, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA

The Internet prototype of the National Paleontologic Database (paleodata) is displayed. It is currently populated with Neogene mollusc data from Southern California, Permian conodont data from Kansas, and Paleozoic fossils from the Frederick quadrangle, Maryland. Ultimately, all collections reported on by the USGS will be included in the database. The data are organized according to 1:100,000 scale maps as is the geologic map database. All information available for each locality are linked to the geographic location on the map. Localities deemed sensitive by Federal Land Managers will be listed separately for each map.

Title: The Electronic Natural History Museum
Panelist: Gary W. Waggoner, NBII Biodiversity Coordinator, USGS, Denver, CO
Anne Frondorf, NBII National Program Coordinator, USGS, Reston, VA
Janet Gomon, Deputy Director, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
John Schnase, Senior Bioinformatics Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

DOI's Electronic Natural History Museum (ENHM) Reinvention Laboratory, with representatives from Federal agencies, academia, and the private sector, is recommending new ways to access and use natural history data contained within the Nation's natural history collections. These diverse public and private collections are an unrecognized, unique national asset. The Lab recommends a new partnership initiative, relying on contemporary technologies, to vastly improve acquisition, access, analysis, synthesis and interchange of natural history collections information across all sectors of the nation, for the purposes of research, education, land management, conservation, and to help assure a higher quality of life for 21st Century Americans.

Title: Murphy's Law in the Past Tense, or a Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Compliance
Panelist: Sue Shefman, Department of Anthropology, Wichita State University
Donald J. Blakeslee, Department of Anthropology, Wichita State University

Wichita State University has participated in long term agreements with the Bureau of Reclamation to do archaeology on land it controls. As part of this agreement, WSU accepted for curation collections which had been made in the 1960's by another institution. After a review found that WSU's facilities did not meet the new federal collections policy, WSU and the Bureau decided to bring the institution into compliance and to use it as a model for other institutions. This paper reviews progress made with emphasis on the problems encountered in managing old collections.

Title: Fear and Loathing: Moving Your Museum Collection
Panelist: Marian C. Creveling, National Park Service, National Capital Region, Museum Resource Center
Robert C. Sonderman, National Park Service, National Capital Region, Museum Resource Center
Kim Robinson, Staff Curator, Department of the Interior Museum
Lysbeth B. Acuff, Chief Curator, Virginia Department of Historic Resources
Julia A. King , Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory
Betty L. Seifert, Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory

During the course of a career, every museum curator or collections manager is faced with the prospect of moving the collections they have been charged to preserve and protect. No matter the size of the collection or how far the move, the task can be daunting and fraught with danger not only for the collections but also for those individuals moving the collection. There are innumerable physical as well as mental challenges associated with moving a collection. The following papers, will discuss those challenges and provide practical and anecdotal guidance on how and how not to move your museum collection.

Title: We're Not In Kansas Any More: Moving Your Museum Collection
Panelist: Marian C. Creveling, National Park Service, National Capital Region, Museum Resource Center
Robert C. Sonderman, National Park Service, National Capital Region, Museum Resource Center

During the Spring of 2000, the National Park Service, Museum Resource Center moved from its overcrowded, outdated facility to a spacious, newly renovated one. Many challenges/opportunities were faced while preparing for the move. " Opportunities" included identifying and working with a move contractor, as well as physically moving 2.5 million archeological objects and the extensive historical collections under our care. This paper will discuss those challenges and offer some practical advice on how we made our move as stressless as possible.

Title: Moving the Interior Museum's Ethnographic Collections
Panelist: Kim Robinson, Staff Curator, Department of the Interior Museum

Through a memorandum of understanding, the National Park Service, Museum Resource Center (MRCW) serves as the repository for much of the museum property of the Department of the Interior Museum. The department stores approximately 1500 items, primarily North American Indian artifacts at the facility. Beginning in April 1999, with the assistance of MRCE staff, departmental staff began preparing its collections for transport to a new National Park Service museum facility in suburban Maryland. The following paper, is a discussion of problem solving in collections care, using specific artifacts as illustrations.

Title: A Moving Experience
Panelist: Lysbeth B. Acuff, Chief Curator, Virginia Department of Historic Resources

In February of 1998 the Virginia Department of Historic Resources moved from several state-owned buildings in downtown Richmond to a new wing of the Virginia Historical Society specifically designed for the Department and its collections. The archaeological collections from 720 sites in Virginia consisted of over 6300 boxes of artifacts plus many large architectural objects and underwater timbers and 42 study collection cabinets. Planning for the move began more than a year before the actual transferal of objects to the new facility. This paper will discuss the preplanning and logistics involved in moving major collections safely in an organized manner to eliminate downtime for our staff, customers and researchers during the move.

Title: Movin' On Up: Relocating Maryland's Archaeological Collections to a New Facility
Panelist: Julia A. King , Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory
Betty L. Seifert, Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory

In 1998, the Maryland Historical trust opened its brand new. 38,000 square feet state-of-the-art archaeological research, conservation, and curation facility. Archaeological collections, archives, libraries, and staff were relocated from four buildings throughout the state into one new facility. This presentation describes how that move was executed. Not only did collections managers arrange for inventorying, addressing, fumigating, and transporting nearly 6,000 record boxes of collections and archives and 4,000 library volumes, they also assisted with the complicated task of moving equipment, furniture, and relocating staff. State bureaucracy and a facility dedication date set by the governor's office dictate fairly rigid parameters of operation. Nonetheless, the move went smoothly with no major problems, thanks to sufficient planning, staff dedication, good weather, and good luck.

Title: Traditional Care At The National Museum of the American Indian: Building Lasting Relationships with Indigenous Communities
Panelist: James Pepper Henry, The National Museum of the American Indian, Cultural Resources Center, Suitland, MD
Terry Snowball, The National Museum of the American Indian, Cultural Resources Center, Suitland, MD

In support of the Smithsonian Institution's stated goal "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) seeks to ensure the appropriate care, handling, treatment and disposition of human remains and culturally sensitive materials in the museum's ethnographic, archival and photographic collections. This goal is accomplished through the establishment of a "Traditional Care" policy. This policy is implemented with regard to the wishes and concerns of indigenous communities and traditional leaders, and structured within the boundaries of the obvious and reasonable limitations of the museum. This presentation describes the formulation of the NMAI Traditional Care Policy and the establishment of a committee to oversee traditional care activities. Issues concerning the handling and treatment of culturally "sensitive" objects are discussed, including the balancing of standard museum practices with tribal traditions, and the disposition of human remains and funerary objects.

Title: Contracting Out Our Nation's Heritage: Privatization of Federal Historical and Cultural Heritage Programs
Panelist: Dr. Norman M. Cary Jr., Head, Curator Branch, Naval Historical Center
Mr. Les Jensen, Curator, Museum Division, US Army Center of Military History

Many of the functions performed by the government in-house for many years are now being performed on a contract basis by the private sector. Many more in-house functions are being studied for contracting. Federal historical and cultural heritage programs are receiving increasingly more scrutiny with a view toward privatizing all or part of these activities. The purpose of this panel is to stimulate a discussion of this issue by the audience and to attempt to define what historical and cultural heritage functions may be appropriate for possible privatization and which of these functions should not and cannot be privatized without putting significant parts of the nation's cultural heritage at risk.

Title: When Diligence Comes Due: Case Studies in the Management of Collections
Panelist: William G. Tompkins, National Collections Coordinator, Smithsonian Institution

"Due Diligence" has recently become a watchword for museums concerned about the effect of theft and illicit traffic of cultural objects in the acquisition of collections. However, the issue of due diligence exceeds the acquisition process. Due diligence is a duty or principle that requires museums to carry out their responsibilities in good faith and with reasonable care under the particular circumstances. But what does due diligence really mean or entail? Using "real life" case study scenarios, the panel will examine the application of due diligence in the acquisition, management, and use of collections.

Title: WPA Artwork in the Fine Arts Collection of the General Services Administration (GSA
Panelist: Alicia D. Weber, Director, Fine Arts Program, General Services Administration (GSA)

Art in Federal buildings is an American tradition that is proudly continued by the General Services Administration (GSA). GSA's Fine Arts Collection is one of the nation's largest and most diverse collections, consisting of over 17,000 paintings, sculpture, graphics, environmental and functional works of art dating from the 1850s. A large portion of the collection dates from the Works Progress Administration (WPA), 1933 - 1943. During the Depression era, the WPA recognized the plight of artists and commissioned paintings and sculpture for the embellishment of newly constructed Federal buildings, post offices and courthouses. At the end of the WPA, many portable works of art were assigned to local museums or galleries as long-term loans or allocations. In 1994, GSA initiated a project to inventory and catalog WPA artwork in non-Federal repositories associated with the Fine Arts Collection. To date, over 14,000 works of art have been inventoried.

This lecture will describe the background and programs of GSA's Fine Arts Collection and discuss recent directions for the legal responsibilities and stewardship of the WPA artwork in Federal buildings and non-Federal repositories.

Title: American Indian Tribal Perspective on Document Collections
Panelist: Marian Kaulaity Hansson,Curator, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Washington, D.C.

Photographs and documents stored in a variety of local, state, and federal and national archives are sought out and researched by many tribal people and persons of American Indian ancestry for many reasons. Legal issues and an overall family genealogy are two of the many reasons why American Indians have discovered document collections a useful work tool. Today, tribal people cherish relevant information found in documents and photographs. The information validates and adds to their knowledge.

The documents of photograph and archival collections reveal messages about people, places, traditions and culture. Photographs show a multitude of characters. The Studies of photographs taken of early day Indian life reveal personalities, characters, religious observances, dances, traditional clothing styles, transitions of clothing styles, adaptations, designs and artistry.

There are many reasons why American Indian families cherish historic photographs of their ancestors. The passing of every elder means the loss of our Indian traditions, stories, knowledge and sacred rites known to them. Time is of the essence for the tribal people of all ages who are actively gathering information to pass on to the younger generations.

Many American Indian people are now documenting their family histories, traditions, culture and preserving this information. Documents reveal information that can in many instances be cross referenced with oral traditions and references. The written documents tell us details of life in a time forgotten by others. The Indian has not vanished; yet, for many, a part of the Indian culture and traditions are vanishing.

Title: Fossils on Federal and Indian Lands: A Report to Congress from the Secretary of the Interior, May, 2000
Panelist: Laurie J. Bryant, Regional Paleontologist, USDOI - Bureau of Land Management, Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT
Lucia Kuizon, Paleontology Program Manager, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC
Sally Shelton, Collections Officer, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC

In May 2000, eight "consulting agencies" -- the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation, Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, National Park Service Smithsonian Institution and U.S. Geological Survey completed the Secretarial report, " Fossils on Federal and Indian lands,: assessing the need for a unified federal policy on the collection, storage and preservation of fossils, and for standards that would maximized the availability of fossils for scientific study. This panel discusses the findings of the consulting agencies, and the seven basic principles that should govern any administrative and Congressional actions pertaining to fossils.

Title: The Public Beware - By Making the Public Aware
Panelist: John H. Fryar, Criminal Investigator, Bureau of Indian Affairs

Looting on federal and Indian lands continues to take its toll on our precious heritage resources. Over the past several years, the criminal investigative unit of the Bureau of Indian Affairs has made great strides in developing public awareness of this threat to our resources through education and media accounts of prosecutions. This paper will provide an overview of some of the types of damage and looting that continues to take place, as well as additional problems we are facing in the field today.

Title: Bigger is Not Necessarily Better: the Challenges of Protecting Our Cultural Heritage
Panelist: Ronald P. Maldonado, Navajo Preservation Officer

The Navajo Nation, the largest Indian reservation in the United States encompassing over 25 million acres has approximately 2.5 million cultural resource sites. Serious threats to these resources include among others, vandalism and looting by professionals and tourists . This paper will discuss the illegal collecting of artifacts from tribal lands and some of the issues encountered when artifacts are returned. Not all returned items pose a problem, the repatriation of sacred items for example, has given the Navajo an opportunity to enrich and maintain their traditional ways .

Title: "Dollars and Sense: The High (and Hidden) Costs of Collecting, Recording and Processing Alaska Native Oral History."
Panelist: Kenneth L. Pratt, ANCSA Program Manager/Supervisory Archeologist Bureau of Indian Affairs

Oral history research is often stimulating and enjoyable but, done right, "difficult" and "tedious" are more accurate descriptive terms for this type of work. Framed by a discussion of two particular Alaska field projects directed by the author, this paper describes the myriad costs and complexities associated with collecting and processing oral history accounts of Alaska Natives. Language diversity, issues of local and regional cultural identity, cultural change, technological problems and logistical factors combine to guarantee that the real work begins once the tape recorder has been turned off.

On the Texas Association of Museums (TAM):