Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
The Department's bureaus and offices are authorized to charge fees to requesters in order to recover the direct costs of search, review and duplication of requested records. If the total costs of supplying the requested information is less than $50, the Department will waive any applicable fees. If the total costs will exceed $250, you may be required to pay before the Department begins its search. Fee and fee waiver issues can be complicated. If you have additional questions, please see our regulations.
Bureaus/offices will charge for processing requests under the FOIA in accordance with the Department's FOIA regulations and the Office of Management and Budget's Guidelines. Bureaus/offices ordinarily will collect all applicable fees before sending copies of records to you and can charge search and review costs even if no records are found or the record reviewed is ultimately not disclosed.
$ .15 per page for standard-size paper.
Search and Review Fees
Clerical Staff (GS-7 and below): $6 per 15 minutes, $24 per hour
Professional Staff (GS-8 through GS-12): $10.75 per 15 minutes, $43 per hour
Managerial Staff (GS-13 and above): $15.50 per 15 minutes, $62 per hour
If you are seeking a fee waiver, it is your responsibility to provide detailed information to support your request. You must submit this information with your FOIA request. Each fee waiver request is judged on its own merit. The Department does not grant "blanket" fee waivers. The fact that you have received a fee waiver in the past does not mean you are automatically entitled to a fee waiver for other requests you submit, because an essential element of any fee waiver determination is whether the release of the particular documents sought will likely contribute significantly to public understanding of the operations or activities of the Government.
Fee Waiver Criteria
An essential element of any fee waiver determination is whether the release of the particular records sought will likely contribute significantly to public understanding of the operation or activities of the Government. The bureau will release records responsive to a request without charge or at a reduced rate if the bureau determines, based on all available information, that you have demonstrated that disclosing the information is:
Is in the public interest because it is likely to contribute significantly to public understanding of the operations or activities of the government, and
Is not primarily in your commercial interest.
In deciding whether you have met the criteria above, the Department will consider the following factors:
The subject of the request must concern identifiable operations or activities of the Federal government, with a connection that is direct and clear, not remote or attenuated.
The disclosable portions of the requested records must be meaningfully informative about government operations or activities to be "likely to contribute" to an increased public understanding of those operations or activities. Information that already is in the public domain, in either the same or a substantially identical form, would not contribute to such understanding.
The disclosure must contribute to the understanding of a reasonably broad audience of persons interested in the subject, as opposed to your individual understanding. The bureau will consider your expertise in the subject area as well as your ability and intention to effectively convey information to the public.
The public's understanding of the subject must be enhanced to a significant extent by the disclosure.