Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Answer: The U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO)* is the Federal Government's primary centralized resource for gathering, cataloging, producing, providing, authenticating, and preserving published information in all its forms. GPO is responsible for the production and distribution of information products and services for all three branches of the Federal Government. GPO's main mission is to ensure the American public has access to Government information. GPO operates much like a business, as it is reimbursed by agencies for a percentage of the cost of work performed.
*Prior to December 17, 2014 GPO was called the Government Printing Office.
Can anyone requisition printing from the GPO?
Answer: No. Requisitions for printing and binding requirements will only be accepted by GPO if signed by an authorized person, who has been designated by your agency/bureau Printing Officer and GPO has your signature on file as an authorized ordering authority.
What is the Joint Committee on Printing?
Answer: The Joint Committee on Printing (JCP), Congress of the United States, established by law, consists of members of the House of Representatives and the Senate. This committee promulgates its basic regulations and instructions in the publication entitledGovernment Printing and Binding Regulations, identified by revision date and numerical series number. These regulations are applicable to and are mandatory for use by all departments of the Federal Government, unless otherwise authorized by the committee.
What is the Federal Depository Library Program?
Answer: Established by the Congress to ensure the American public has access to its Government's information, the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) involves the acquisition, format conversion, and distribution of depository materials and the coordination of Federal depository libraries across the country. The mission of the FDLP is to disseminate information products from all three branches of the Government to more than 1,250 libraries nationwide. Libraries that have been designated as Federal depositories maintain these information products as part of their existing collections and are responsible for assuring that the public has free access to the material provided by the FDLP.
What is GPO Access?
Answer: GPO Access is a service of the U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) that provides free electronic access to a wealth of important information products produced by the Federal Government. This free service is funded by the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) and has grown out of Public Law 103-40, known as the Government Publishing Office Electronic Information Enhancement Act of 1993.
What is a GPO Billing Adress Code (BAC)?
Answer: A GPO BAC is a 6-digit (alphanumeric) billing address code that identifies an agency/bureau and the unit's mailing address for billing documents for all U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO) orders. Basically, it is your customer account number. For information of the Department of the Interior's assigned BAC's please see our Billing Address Codes page.
Where can I find my agency/bureau GPO BAC?
Answer: If you do not know your agency/bureau GPO BAC, first contact personnel in your agency/bureau responsible for placing printing jobs with the U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO). For more information of the contacts for each bureau see our Contacts page. You may also contact your GPO Agency Publishing Specialist for this information.
Where can I find a glossary of printing terms specific to GPO's printing procurement program?
Answer: The Federal Register is a legal newspaper published every business day by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). It contains Federal agency regulations; proposed rules and notices; and Executive Orders, proclamations, and other Presidential documents. The Federal Register informs citizens of their rights and obligations and provides access to a wide range of Federal benefits and opportunities for funding. NARA's Office of the Federal Register prepares the Federal Register for publication in partnership with the U.S. Government Publishing Office (GPO), which distributed in electronic format only on the World Wide Web.
Why do Federal Register Notices have a BAC at the end of the articles?
Answer: The BAC is published in each article specifically for billing purposes by GPO. They use an automated software to scan each article for the BAC and counts the number of columns to generate an IPAC.
What do the GPO's charges cover?
Answer: The Federal Register is charged at a per column rate (published columns) depending on the type of article submission. Current rates as of January 2015 for submission types are as follows:
• Microsoft Word document - $159/column
• Manuscript copy - $174/column
• Camera copy - $174/column
What is an Agency Federal Register Liaison?
Answer: Each agency has a designated Federal Register Liaison. The Agency Federal Register Liaison is responsible for representing their agency in all matters relating to submission of documents to the Office of the Federal Register for publishing within the Federal Register. The Federal Register Liaisons must also ensure that each article contains a BAC, and that the correct agency BAC is identified for each documents submission to the Office of the Federal Register.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
What is the Code of Federal Regulations?
Answer: The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. It is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. Each volume of the CFR is updated once each calendar year and is issued on a quarterly basis. Note: All CFR titles are currently available electronically through GPO Access. The Internet address is: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html.
Explain briefly how the CFR program works.
Answer: The CFR is comprised of articles that are submitted to the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) for publishing in the Federal Register and which are ultimately "codified" and then printed as the official regulation in the CFR publication. When the OFR puts together each Title for the next calendar year, they (OFR) decide which Titles require a complete printing based on the changes that were made since the last publishing.
In some instances, it could be as simple as a sentence or two changing from the previous year to require a complete printing of the Title; if no changes are significant enough, OFR directs GPO to publish just a cover for the Titles, (This is rare in regards to the programs that DOI operates).
The costs that GPO charges for publishing a CFR are NOT for the costs associated for an actual printed copy(s), but merely for the costs associated to take the electronic content that OFR provides and format accordingly and costs associated to publishing a particular CFR Title and Part.
How are costs calculated for publishing the CFR?
Answer: The charges are based on the number of pages within the Title(s) and/or Part(s) that are specific to your organization. The total number of pages "x" times the GPO page rate, currently $85.00/pages in 2014. (i.e., 135 pages x $85 = $11,475.00 CFR charge that GPO will bill for your portion of the CFR.
Will GPO charge me each year that same amount for publishing the CFR?
Answer: The charges will most likely vary slightly from year to year based on the total number of pages that are specific to your organization. If your organization has more notices that fiscal year that ultimately become "codified" then depending on the number of pages the content of the regulation covers within the CFR will increase the total number of your pages count and thusly increase your total amount due for that fiscal year.
When does GPO IPAC our office for any potential CFR charges?
Answer: The period of being IPAC varies for each CFR Title and Part based on several factors outside our control and can even cross fiscal years depending on where a particular CFR is in the cycle of being updated by the OFR and release to GPO to then be in the cycle for being compiled in the format for publishing and then released. Basically, there is no fixed schedule that you can expect from one year to another.
Do I need to budget for the costs annually?
Answer: Absolutely. You should look across the average of your past three years to determine the best amount to use as your baseline and then working with your Federal Register liaison try and look across those three years and gauge the percentage of cost increase that you encountered on average. Once you establish a baseline you have an annual budget for the CFR and then you will need to forecast budget increase for the out years.
If my Bureau does not request any hard copies of the CFR during a fiscal year, are we still billed for the CFR?
Answer: The request for hard copies and the potential charges associated for any hard copies are not linked to the outcome of your Bureau being charged for the "publishing" of the CFR. The printed copies cost is completely separate from the CFR Publishing charges. The GPO will charge all federal agencies at a fixed per page rate for the content published in the Code of Federal Regulations regardless if your office orders zero, one or a hundred hard copies.
What is GPO's authority for publishing the CFR's each year?
Answer: The GPO is mandated by law to publish both the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulation; Chapter 15, Title 44, United States Code. See specifically sections 1502, 1504 and 44 U.S.C. § 1509: (a) The cost of printing, reprinting, wrapping, binding, and distributing the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations, and, except as provided in subsection (b), other expenses incurred by the Government Publishing Office in carrying out the duties placed upon it by this chapter shall be charged to [GPO's] revolving fund provided in section 309. Reimbursements for such costs and expenses shall be made by the Federal agencies and credited, together with all receipts, as provided in section 309(b).
If GPO sells printed copies of the CFR and makes a profit or recovers their cost from that, why are we paying for their upfront costs? Why is our cost not offset?
Answer: GPO recoups its cost and any additional funds that are generated are used to finance additional Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations projects (such as the online application ecfr.gov; federalregister.gov, etc…) which further the reach of this published information.
Is my organization able to receive copies of particular CFR Title/Part?
Answer: Yes, the Department of the Interior is entitled to 300 free copies per CFR Title/Part. Each year an annual survey is conducted through your respective Printing Official on-behalf of your organization.
In accordance with Title1—General Provision, Chapter I—Administrative Committee of the Federal Register, Part 12—Official Distribution Within Federal Government, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) section 12.2. (a)(4):
"Each Federal executive agency will be provided with the number of copies needed for official use, not to exceed 300 copies of individual titles per agency, based on a written request from the agency Federal Register authorizing officer…"
If you have any questions on the Department's 300 free CFR copies, please contact Reclamation's Printing Officer. While we are able to receive printed copies at no cost to the organization, we strongly recommend that where possible to consider using the electronic versions of the CFR as they are kept current and promotes the mandates to reduce printing and go green.