Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Seasoned backpacker and adventurer Yang Lu earned the grand prize in the 2015 Share the Experience photo contest with this image of a sunburst captured at sunrise in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah. Yang has made the outdoors part of his daily life and finds deep connection to the land through his lens.
“My photography is not just for recreation, it is to inspire people to explore these areas." -- Yang Lu
Photo by Yang Lu (www.sharetheexperience.org).
DOINews: Research Highlight: Integrated Ecosystem Model
Last edited 4/26/2016
The Alaska Climate Science Center recently sat down for a short conversation with David McGuire, the Principal Investigator of the Integrated Ecosystem Model (IEM) project and Amy Breen, a project manager and research professor affiliated with the IEM project to talk about the IEM project, its goals, and significance for studying and managing climate change in Alaska and Northwest Canada.
What is the Integrated Ecosystem Model (IEM)?
David McGuire: The IEM for Alaska and Northwest Canada is an effort to try and forecast landscape change within the Alaska and Northwest Canada region.
Amy Breen: The IEM brings together climate driven changes to disturbance, vegetation, permafrost, and hydrology to illustrate how arctic and boreal landscapes may be altered in the future. The coupled model is comprised of three individual ecosystem models because these different drivers don't occur in isolation.
David McGuire: The IEM is a 5-year project, and we had a pilot year in 2011. This phase is 2012-2016, and we're just starting the second year of the project.
What is the significance of the study area?
David McGuire: The study area is Alaska and Northwest Canada, which is sometimes referred to as the Western Arctic. In general high latitude regions are expected to experience the greatest amount of warming. They are warming at twice the rate of the global average. Were already seeing a lot of changes occurring this area. Because it is expected to change the fastest, we are trying to get ahead of the curve to understand these changes and the implications of these changes on resource management. Understanding how the landscape may change and affect ecosystem services is the overall thrust of this project.
What kinds of project activities are happening this year?
David McGuire: This year, we have a number of activities. We're coupling models of vegetation change, ecosystem change, and permafrost properties so we can forecast landscape change.
What kinds of people make up the IEM team?
Amy Breen: The collaborators on the project are from the University of Alaska Fairbanks and we have members from different research communities, including the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab, the Institute of Arctic Biology, and the Scenarios Network for Alaska and Arctic Planning.
David McGuire: Another part of the team is the data group and they are responsible for helping us with those issues. We also have software engineers that help us set up the software coupling program. And then we have a couple of research subgroups, one of which is working on tundra fire and treeline dynamics, another is working on thermokarst dynamics, and another is working on wetland dynamics.
How does this project meet regional needs?
David McGuire: There has been a real gap in the needs of resource managers to assess how climate change will affect resources. The models haven't been developed to do those assessments. Our question is, “how will landscapes change?” Once people get forecasts of how things may change, they can relate the changes to the resources they manage.
Amy Breen: We anticipate that the results from the project will be used by natural resource managers and other stakeholders to predict and plan for potential landscape changes in Alaska and Northwest Canada.