Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Office of Budget Mission, Functions, and Organization
The Office of Budget has primary staff responsibility for directing and coordinating the development, presentation, execution, and control of the Department's Budget.
The major functions of the Office of Budget fall into: (A) budget formulation within the Department and presentation to the Office of Management and Budget, the Congress, press, interest groups, and the public; and (b) budget execution and control.
A. Budget Formulation and Presentation.
Coordinates development of the Department's budget, including presentation of budget options to the Secretary on the allocation of resources.
Prescribes policies, procedures, and controls for developing the budget, preparing budget justifications, and preparing supplementary budget requests and reprogramming requests.
Participates in and coordinates budgetary determinations and examines budget proposals for compliance with (a) the Administration's budgetary policies, (b) Departmental goals and objectives, and (c) statutory and regulatory requirements.
Reviews bureau budget justifications and appropriations language for consistency with policy, adequacy, accuracy, and required format.
Reviews all proposals for supplementary budget request and reprogramming request for substance, need, and conformity with Administration and Departmental policies and commitments.
Responsible for liaison on all matters dealing with budget formulation and presentation with the Office of Management and Budget, the House and Senate Appropriations Committees, and other Federal agencies.
Prepares statistical summaries, analyses, and special reports on budget proposals, budget activities, and related matters for the Secretariat, the Office of Management and Budget, and Congress.
Reviews in-depth selected Departmental functions and programs, examining program objectives, policies, procedures, standards, performance, progress, work operations, cost and staffing to improve budget review and execution, improve base for formulation or reformulating budgets and program management; and evelops procedures for monitoring program effectiveness and control, and conducts independent cost review.
B. Budget Execution and Control.
Develops and prescribes policies and procedures for apportionment, reapportionment, rescission, and deferral of apportionments; coordinates the preparation and submission of these documents; and reviews them for substance and conformity with Administration and Departmental policies and commitments.
Monitors budget execution throughout the Department, including obligations and outlays, and maintains control on expenditure of funds imposed by the Congress and the Office of Management and Budget.
Collects, reviews, and analyzes receipt estimates.
Collects, reviews, and analyzes apportionments and re-apportionnments.
Allocates staffing and monitors usage throughout the year.
Obtains warrants of funds from the Department of the Treasury under a continuing Resolution.
Acts as liaison on all matters dealing with budget execution and control with the Office of Management and Budget and the Department of the Treasury.
Interprets and implements directives of the Office of Management and Budget and the Department of the Treasury on budgetary matters and provides technical assistance to Department staff on such matters.
Review in-depth selected Departmental functions and programs, examining program objectives, policies, procedures, standards, performance, progress, work operations, costs, and staffing to improve budget review and execution, improve base for formulation or reformulating budgets and program management; and develops procedures for monitoring program effectiveness and control, and conducts independent cost reviews.
The Office is managed by the Director who reports to the Deputy Assistant Secretary - Budget, Finance, Performance, and Acquisition. The Director is assisted by a Deputy Director, administrative support staff, and the following divisions.
A. Division of Budget and Program Review.
This Division consists of budget analysts assigned to a series of accounts on an organizational/bureau or programmatic basis, as determined by the Director. The Division is responsible for budget examination, analysis, and related activities, and for comprehensive reviews of selected programs or activities for budget formulation and presentation.
B. Division of Budget Administration.
This Division consists of budget analysts responsible for maintaining master dollar control tables in budget formulation and presentation; coordinating Department-wide budget materials, standards, and instructions for budget estimates and justifications; and for budget execution and control, as well as for the reporting of receipts, outlays, and staffing.
C. Departmental Management Division.
This Division consists of budget analysis responsible for all budget formulation, execution, review, and analysis activities for the Office of the Secretary, the Working Capital Fund, and the Interior Franchise Fund.