Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Comparison of House and Senate Action on the Second FY 2002 Supplemental Appropriations Bill
The President transmitted a $27.1 billion Emergency FY 2002 Supplemental Appropriations request to the Congress on March 21, 2002. This second supplemental would provide resources to support the war on terrorism, strengthen homeland security, and continue economic recovery. The request did not request additional funds for Interior programs, but included a proposal to rescind $10 million from funds previously appropriated to BIA for the San Carlos Irrigation Project.
The House Committee on Appropriations reported its version of the second supplemental appropriations bill for FY 2002(H.R. 4775) on May 20. The measure totals $29.4 billion. It was taken up on the House floor on Wednesday. Consideration continued throughout Thursday, before final passage Friday morning by a vote of 280-138. The Senate Appropriations Committee version of the supplemental appropriations bill totals $31 billion.
Comparison of House & Senate Funding For Interior & Related Agencies Programs
BLM Management of Lands & Resources
FWS Resource Management
NPS Operations of the National Park System
USGS Surveys, Investigations, & Research
BIA Operation of Indian Programs
DM Salaries & Expenses
BLM Management of Lands and Resources:
The House provides $658,000 to repay unreimbursed costs for security details at the Main Interior Complex.
The Senate includes $786,000 for reimbursement to BLM for costs of security details in the Departmental Management account.
FWS Resource Management:
The House provides $1.443 million repay unreimbursed airport security detail costs, unreimbursed security detail overtime costs, unreimbursed law enforcement costs for security details at the Main Interior Complex, and to reimburse continuity of operations costs incurred by FWS.
The Senate includes $626,000 for reimbursement to FWS for costs of security details in the Departmental Management account.
The Senate provides $412,000 to repay unreimbursed continuity of operations costs incurred by FWS and for airport security details.
The Senate provides $3.125 million for homeland security related construction including $1.7 million for general safety upgrades, $660,000 for dam safety measures, and $765,000 for security measures at the Clark R. Bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory.
NPS Operation of the National Park System:
The House provides $1.173 million to repay unreimbursed law enforcement costs for security details at the Main Interior Complex.
The Senate includes $1.401 million for reimbursement NPS for costs of security details in the Departmental Management account.
The House provides $19.3 million for construction of a security screening facility at the Washington Monument.
The Senate provides $17.561 million for homeland security related construction, including $12.98 million for the installation of an in-ground retaining wall around the Washington Monument and $4.671 million for the installation of bollards around the Jefferson Memorial. These items are requested in the President's 2003 budget request.
USGS Surveys, Investigations, and Research:
The House provides $25.7 million for infrastructure mapping in 120 urban areas across the United States.
The Senate provides $20 million for high resolution mapping and imagery of the Nation's most strategic cities and $6.776 million for the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center. Of this amount $6 million is for storage infrastructure upgrades to convert archived data to disk-based storage and $776,000 is for an improved backup power supply system to ensure uninterrupted delivery of satellite data.
BIA Operation of Indian Programs:
The House rescinds $5 million previously appropriated for the San Carlos Irrigation project and provides that the balance of funds remaining in the San Carlos Irrigation Project (approximately $7 million) may be used to pay trust reform-related costs associated with the ongoing Cobell litigation and other litigation related to the management of Indian trust funds. The House provides $134,000 to repay unrimbursed law enforcement costs for security details at the Main Interior Complex.
The Senate includes $161,000 for reimbursement to BIA for costs of security details in the Departmental Management account.
The Senate rescinds $10 million previously appropriated for the San Carlos Irrigation Project.
Departmental Offices Salaries and Expenses:
The House provides $905,000 including $785,000 for homeland security and $120,000 to repay unreimbursed law enforcement costs for security details at the Main Interior Complex.
The Senate provides $2.9 million for upgrades to the current employee access control system, the installation of a public address system, and installation of protective window film at the Main Interior Complex; $3.117 million for the repayment of law enforcement costs associated with security detail assignments at the Main Interior Complex; and $1.013 million for homeland security planning and coordination positions at the Department and bureau levels.
The House provides authority for FWS to charge fees for services at Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and to use those receipts for non-refuge specific needs, including operation of the Midway fueling operation.
The House prohibits the Department of Defense from being held responsible for civilian water consumption that is outside the boundaries of a military installation and beyond the direct authority and control of the Secretary of Defense for the purposes of the Endangered Species Act (Section 705).
The Senate provides authority for MMS to recover transportation and administrative costs associated with filling the Strategic Petroleum Reserve with royalty-in-kind oil (Section 701).
The House and Senate provide authority for the Secretaries of Interior and Agriculture to enter into reciprocal agreements with foreign nations extending the protection of the Federal Tort Claims Act to foreign firefighters (House Section 704 and Senate Section 702).