Spring is coming early in 3/4 of national parks, according to a new study. Awesome? Not so much. As flowers bloom earlier every year, it’s disrupting the link between the wildflowers and the arrival of birds, bees, and butterflies that feed on and pollinate the flowers. In Shenandoah, an earlier spring is giving invasive plants a head start, and they’re displacing native wildflowers, leading to costly management issues.
Before the 1960s almost everything about living openly as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) person was illegal. New York City laws against homosexual activities were particularly harsh. The Stonewall Uprising on June 28, 1969 is a milestone in the quest for LGBT civil rights and provided momentum for a movement.
Vine Creek Ranch at Death Valley National Park. Steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes. Towering peaks are frosted with winter snow. Rare rainstorms bring vast fields of wildflowers. Lush oases harbor tiny fish and refuge for wildlife and humans. Despite its morbid name, a great diversity of life survives in Death Valley.
Located 2,600 miles southwest of Hawaii, the National Park of American Samoa is the most remote unit of the National Park System and the U.S. National Park south of the Equator. The Park spreads across three islands, 9,500 acres of tropical rainforest, and 4,000 acres of ocean, including coral reefs. While remote, the islands of American Samoa, true to the meaning of the word Samoa (Islands of Sacred Earth), are welcoming and offer beautiful landscapes and centuries of culture and history.
Energy and Water Development Appropriations - House
On June 23, the House Appropriations Committee filed its report on H.R. 4733, the fiscal year 2001 Energy and Water Development Appropriations bill. The bill was considered on the House floor and passed June 27 without change to the Bureau of Reclamation or Central Utah Project portions of the act.
Overall, the Committee provided $22.2 billion in new current budget authority, $562 million above the FY 2000 level, but $933 million below the FY 2001 President's Budget. Within this total, $17.2 billion was provided for Department of Energy programs ($853 million below the Budget), $4.1 billion for the Corps of Engineers ($60 million above the Budget), and $0.9 billion for other agencies. In particular, $770.5 million was provided for Department of the Interior programs, $36.7 million below the FY 2000 level and $70.5 million below the FY 2001 President's Budget.
Bureau of Reclamation
The House Committee provided $730.5 million for Reclamation accounts, $37.4 million below the FY 2000 level and $70.5 million below the FY 2001 President's Budget. The most significant action by the Committee was to delete all of the $60.0 million requested for the California Bay-Delta Restoration Program, on the basis that the authorization of appropriations currently ends in FY 2000. The report states the Committee remains very supportive of the program, and will reconsider its recommendation if the program is re-authorized before work is completed on the FY 2001 Energy and Water Development bill.
Funds provided for Water and Related Resources, Reclamation's primary operating account, total $635.8 million, $28.8 million above FY 2000 but $7.3 million below the request. Within this total, the Committee added $38.7 million for specific projects, programs, or studies; but more than offset these increases by reducing the funding requested for other projects, programs, or studies by $27.4 million, and by increasing the "allowance for slippage" by $18.6 million.
In particular, the Committee deleted all of the $16.0 million requested for the Rocky Boy's Indian Water Rights Settlement (MT), apparently on the basis that it is a "new start". The remaining reductions were taken from Reclamation-wide programs that do not have specific, easily identified constituents. In general, the increases provided by the Committee are to accelerate work on ongoing projects and studies. These increases include: $9.0 million for Central Valley Project (CA) activities, $6.0 million for the Gila River Indian Community distribution system (AZ), $6.0 million for water reuse projects and programs, $5.0 million for the Mid-Dakota Rural Water Project (SD), $4.0 million for the Mni Wiconi Rural Water System (SD), $4.0 million for pilot projects to remove salt from the Salton Sea, and $1.2 million for four water resources investigations.
The Committee cut the request for the Policy and Administration account by $3.2 million to $47.0 million (the FY 2000 level). Finally, the Committee provided the amount requested for the Central Valley Project Restoration Fund ($38.4 million) and for the Loan Program ($9.4 million).
Central Utah Project
The Committee provided $39.9 million for completion of the Central Utah Project, $0.7 million above the FY 2000 level and the same as the President's Budget.
Report and Bill Language
The House Committee bill includes language prohibiting the use of funds for closure of the Auburn Dam (CA) diversion tunnel or restoration of the American River channel at that site; or to purchase or lease water at two projects in New Mexico unless certain conditions are met. The report directs the Secretary, in cooperation with the Administrator of the Western Area Power Administration, to review electric power programs related to the San Carlos Irrigation Project (AZ).