Department of Labor Publishes the SHARE Scorecard
The Department of Labor published the FY 2008 Safety, Health, and Return-to-Employment
(SHARE) scorecard, the Department of the Interior (DOI) fails two. DOI
received red dots for Total Case Rate (TCR) and Post Production Days (LPD)
and green dots for Lost Time Case Rate (LTCR) and Timeliness of filing claims. A
spike in fourth quarter injuries prevented DOI form achieving all four goals. The
Scorecard can be viewed at http://www.dol.gov/esa/owcp/dfec/share/perform.asp?filename=summary.asp
The Department will be analyzing the accident reports filed in FY 2008 to
learn what happened and to develop a strategy for pro-actively managing employee
injuries and illnesses.
OSHA Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for New Respirator
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published a Notice
of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (www.osha.gov)
for a new fit-testing protocol, the Abbreviated Bitrex Qualitative Fit-Testing
(ABQLFT) protocol. The agency is accepting public comments until Feb. 25,
The ABQLFT has a shorter exercise duration than the current methods. The
ABQLFT protocol shortens the duration for each of the seven fit-test exercises
from one minute to 15 seconds. The proposed protocol would apply to
employers in general industry, shipyard employment and the construction industry.
Additional information on the proposed rule can be found at: http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=14879
OSHA CRANE AND DERRICK PROPOSAL PUBLISHED
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published a proposed
rule intended to protect employees from hazards associated with using cranes
and derricks in construction activities. The proposal has three main
requirements for the employer:
1. The employer would have to determine if the ground being constructed
on is sufficient to support the anticipated weight of hoisting equipment
and associated loads.
2. The employer then needs to assess hazards within the work zone that might
affect the hoisting equipment, such as power lines, objects or people that
would be in the work zone.
3. The employer would be required to assess equipment through inspections
to make sure that it is in safe operating condition. Employees would also
be trained to recognize hazards associated with the use of the equipment.
Crane operators would have to be trained and certified.
OSHA will also be launching a three-tiered initiative to address crane
operations focusing: on the providing of information to the construction
industry and other stakeholders; offering enhanced resources to OSHA inspectors
who address crane safety; and implementing a National Emphasis Program on
OSHA REOPENS RULE ON CONSTRUCTION SAFETY
On October 22, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) announced
that it was reopening the rulemaking record on a proposed rule to raise the
level of safety for construction workers. The record is to be reopened for
a month due to a possible error in the tables that calculate the minimum approach
distance for certain voltages.
The original rulemaking period had closed on July 14, 2006. The technical
committee responsible for creating the tables on which the proposal was based
discovered an error in their calculation of minimum approach distances for
certain voltages. The table shows the limit to how close an employee, or the
conductive object the employee is holding, may safely get to an energized
The proposed rule would provide an update on an existing rule and create
a performance standard on the construction of electric power transmission
and distribution installations. Consistent with the agency's general industry
rule, the rule would add provisions related to host employers, flame resistant
clothing and training.
Comments related to the minimum approach tables mentioned above should be
sent by November 21 to the federal eRulemaking portal at www.regulations.gov,
Docket No. OSHA-S215-2006-0063.
NEW ISO NANOTECHNOLOGY REPORT
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) issued a report
October 1, which outlines best practices for performing risk assessments and
characterizing nanoparticle exposure in occupational environments. The new
report contains the most comprehensive set of guidelines for working safely
with nanomaterials. The report was based on NIOSH's "Approaches
to Safe Nanotechnology" from 2006 and is entirely informative in nature. This
report summarizes all available knowledge and builds a foundation for the
development of more science-based safety and occupational health guidance.
HOUSE MOVES TO BAN ASBESTOS
Legislation has been introduced in the House of Representatives to ban asbestos
in virtually all products. The Bruce Vento Ban Asbestos and Prevent Mesothelioma
Act of 2008 (H.R. 6903) would prohibit the current limited exemptions
for the import, manufacture, processing or distribution of asbestos-containing
products. The proposed House bill would also establish a public education
program to increase awareness of the dangers posed by asbestos containing
products and provide information about asbestos-related diseases.
Department Responds to OIG Audit Report on Health and Safety Concerns
at Department of the Interior’s Facilities
The Department of the Interior (DOI) has reacted to the Office of the Inspector
General (OIG) Final Audit Report on the Health and Safety Concerns at Department
of the Interior’s Facilities, (Report Number C-IN-MOA-0011-2006) by
creating Work Groups to respond to individual recommendations. The
goal of the audit was to determine if the Department and bureaus have effectively
addressed health and safety issues related to facilities. The Work
- Mitigation Reporting Work Group to investigate ways to mitigate deficiencies
- Organizational Structures Work Group to determine the optimal structure
for the DOI safety and health program.
- Strategic Plan Work Group to develop a DOI safety and health strategic
plan with milestones.
- Abatement Work Group to investigate ways of tracking hazard abatement.
- Budget Work Group to insure the safety and health program is adequately
- Training Work Group to insure that safety and health training requirements
- Awards Work Group to identify awards and award categories that better
align with DOI ceremony structure.
The full report can be viewed at: http://www.doioig.gov/upload/2008-G-00171.pdf
OSHA PROPOSES CHEMICAL HAZARD COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is internally circulating
a draft proposal to implement the United Nation's Globally Harmonized Classification
and Labeling System (GHS) for chemicals. The agency has not yet submitted
the proposal to the Office of Management and Budget. It is not yet known
when OSHA will issue the proposed rule, but the Unified Agenda due out this
month should list when it will be addressed.
According to project officer for GHS in OSHA's Directorate of Standards
and Guidance Maureen O'Donnell, the proposal will include GHS's 16-section
Safety Data Sheet. However, OSHA does not have jurisdiction over some of
those 16 sections, such as the environmental risks and transportation sections.
O'Donnell explained manufacturers will bear the greatest burden due to rewriting
their hazard communication documents and revising their training, however,
it will be to their benefit in the long run. Manufacturers will be able to
enjoy the largest benefit in terms of health and safety protection, trade
and consistency in safety data sheets. Currently, the language in data sheets
may be confusing to workers who may have an education level below 10th grade.
GHS will use a simpler language and will only require about 30 minutes to
train workers to read.
Bringing Workplace Safety & Health Home: Garage Safety
For many American homes, one of the most dangerous rooms is the garage. The
garage houses flammable liquids such as paint thinners and gasoline. Liquids
that produce invisible explosive vapors should be stored outside the house
to avoid a fire hazard. Also, install a smoke detector and mount a fire extinguisher
in the garage area.
Most of the time the, garage acts as "catch all" to many items
not wanted in the main house. These items can often clutter and cause many
trip hazards. It is important to keep trip hazards in mind when stacking
items in the garage. Also, this room is usually poorly lit so remember to
keep a spare flashlight by the door and have light switches installed
at every entrance to provide adequate lighting.
OSHA on Parking Lot Injuries – Record Them
OSHA has issued a letter of interpretation that states that employers must
record employee injuries when they occur in the employers’ parking
lots. The letter, posted on OSHA’s website on September 2, 2008,
addresses two situations during which the workers were injured when they
fell to the ground as they were exiting their vehicle in the establishment’s
The letter states that “…an injury or illness must be considered
work-related if an event or exposure in the work environment either caused
or contributed to the injury or illness…” and defines the work
environment as the establishment and other locations where one or more employees
are working or are present as a condition of their employment. Work
relatedness is presumed under Part 1904 for injuries and illnesses resulting
from events or exposures occurring in the work environment…” Under
OSHA's recordkeeping regulation, company parking lots and company access
roads are included within the definition of "establishment."
There is an exception to this situation. The case must meet three
- First, the injury must occur when the employee is commuting to or from
work, and not when the employee is traveling in the interest of the employer.
- Second, the injury must take place in the company parking lot or company
access road (the work establishment).
- Finally, the injury must result from a motor vehicle accident.
The complete letter of interpretation is available at http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=27094
US Workplace Fatalities Down 6% in 2007
Preliminary data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ annual Census
of Fatal Occupational Injuries indicates a 6% reduction in work-related injuries
in 2007 from 2006. There were 5,488 fatal worker injuries in the United
States in 2007, compared with 5840 for the previous year.
Among the key findings in this initial analysis:
- The construction industry continued to have the highest number of fatalities
of any industry - 1178 deaths (21.5%)
- The number of fatal falls in 2007 rose to a series high of 835--a 39
percent increase since 1992.
- Transportation incidents, which typically account for two-fifths of all
workplace fatalities, fell to a series low of 2,234 cases in 2007.
- The 835 fatal falls in 2007 represented a series high for the fatality
census. The increase for falls overall was driven primarily by increases
in falls on same level (up 21 percent from 2006) and falls from non-moving
vehicles(up 17 percent). Falls from roofs, however, were down 13
percent from the number in 2006.
- Fatalities among government workers increased 2 percent. Four of the
106 federal employee fatalities involved DOI employees.
- Fatalities among workers employed in protective service occupations rose
19 percent from 2006 to 2007, including police officers (up 30 percent),
fire fighters (up 17 percent), and security guards (up 11 percent).
The complete BLS report can be found at: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/cfoi.nr0.htm
Home Safety Council Offers Advice and Resources to Help Families Prepare
Tornados, hurricanes, wildfire, earthquakes, flooding, fires and
disasters often happen unexpectedly, leaving families no time to prepare
to evacuate or seek shelter in their home. In support of National
Preparedness Month, the Home Safety Council (HSC) is urging families to
make a communications plan and assemble readiness kits now, in order to
be ready for the unexpected later.
A recent HSC survey found that while more than half of survey
respondents (58 percent) have experienced a disaster first-hand, very
few have taken action to prepare for another emergency. In fact, only 25
percent of those polled have assembled basic emergency supplies such as
water, food and clothing.
"When a disaster occurs, it's already too late to make an emergency
plan," said Meri-K Appy, president of the Home Safety Council. "The
to get ready is now before disaster strikes. By investing a few minutes
today, families will have the knowledge, supplies and the plan needed to
safely and securely make it through any type of emergency situation."
Develop a Family Communications Plan:
HSC encourages families to talk about the kinds of disasters that can
occur in their area and make a plan to stay safe if a disaster should
arise. Family communication plans should include:
- Meeting places in and out of town
- Phone numbers of in-town contacts
- An address and phone number of someone out of town
- A card for each family member including this information
Put Together a "Ready-to-Go Kit":
HSC encourages families to keep the following items in a backpack, tote
or duffle bag to be ready if an emergency situation forces them to leave
- One gallon of water per person
- A small amount of cash
- Non-refrigerated food
- A manual can opener
- Plastic/paper plates, cups and utensils
- Flashlight and extra batteries
- Battery-operated radio and extra batteries
- Change of clothes
- Card with your contact information and the number of someone out of
state to call
- Pet food and supplies for one or more days; and leash or carrier
- Small first-aid kit
- Personal hygiene items, soap and hand sanitizer
It is equally important for families to have extra supplies on-hand in
the event an emergency situation forces them to remain in the home for
several days. A "Ready-to-Stay Kit" contains all of the items in
the "Ready-to-Go" Kit plus a few others. Prepare a "Ready-to-Stay
the following additional items stored in a plastic tub or other large,
- Three gallons of water for each family member
- Canned food and snacks for at least three days
- Toilet paper
- Non-scented bleach
- Books and games
- Paper and pencils
For more information to help your family prepare for disaster, visit the
Home Safety Council's new interactive safety destination,
Product safety recalls for October 2008
July / September 2008
OIG Releases Audit Report on Health
and Safety Concerns at Department of the Interior’s Facilities
The Department of the Interior’s (DOI) Office of the Inspector
General (OIG) released their Final Audit Report on the Health and Safety
Concerns at Department of the Interior’s Facilities, (Report
Number C-IN-MOA-0011-2006). The goal of the audit was to determine
if the Department and bureaus have effectively addressed health and
safety issues related to facilities. The OIG found that some
weaknesses remained in the DOI program including:
- Deficiencies in the organization, coordination, staffing, and recordkeeping
of health and safety programs.
- Many facilities on DOI lands currently contain health and safety
- When surveyed, some employees felt that serious deficiencies currently
exist in their workplaces.
The full report can be viewed at: http://www.doioig.gov/upload/2008-G-00171.pdf
The Department has responded by forming work groups to address the recommendations
in the audit report.
News on the OSHA Front
HOUSE COMMITTEE HEARING ON CONSTRUCTION SAFETY
On June 24, 2008, the House Committee on Education and Labor held a
hearing to determine whether the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) is effectively enforcing safety rules for construction. The committee
discussed the recent crane accidents in New York City and Las Vegas,
which have made this a high-profile issue. On this occasion, Assistant
Secretary of Labor for OSHA, Edwin Foulke, Jr., maintained OSHA's advancements
and highlighted current initiatives to improve workplace resources, personnel
and enforcement, including an 18 percent decline in the construction
fatality rate since 2001. Foulke also stated that the administration
is in the final stages of developing the proposed crane and derrick rule.
MILLER SUGGESTS CHANGES TO OSHA ENFORCEMENT
During the June 24 house committee hearing, Chairman George Miller (D-Calif.),
suggested that OSHA consider changing its enforcement tools, as they
are "apparently not working for the construction industry."
Several arguments were made, including the fact that penalties are usually
assessed long after an inspection occurs, the fines are too low and are
sometimes even further reduced when the company or site
negotiates with OSHA to reach a settlement.
Miller stated that he was not sure if he considered higher fines to be
a better plan, but he did favor elements of the New York plan. The aggressive
program in New York issues stop-work orders to immediately stop unsafe
construction. Mayor Michael Bloomberg stated that the new program brings
the focus to the education of construction workers and prosecutes the "bad
Senior vice president for construction at Denier Electric Co. in Columbus,
Ohio, Mike Kallmeyer, also told the committee that there should be more
emphasis on education, stating, "I believe that the most effective
action for government is to aggressively promote its educational partnerships
with the industry so that more employers have the resources to improve
their workplace." Kallmeyer provided examples of partnerships, including
the fact that Denier Electric is beginning the application process to
participate in OSHA's Voluntary Protection Programs.
OSHA UNVEILS NEW FLOOD AND TORNADO CLEANUP AND RECOVERY WEB PAGE
Employers and employees involved in cleanup and recovery activities following
the Midwest floods and tornadoes will benefit from a new Web page at www.dol.gov posted
by the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration
"We encourage employers and employees to access this vital information
targeted to the conditions in which they will be working," said
Assistant Secretary of Labor for OSHA, Edwin G. Foulke Jr.
The floods and tornadoes recovery page features links to more than 40
fact sheets and easy-reference QuickCards® in English and Spanish
with safety and health tips on hazards such as downed electrical wires,
chain saws, general decontamination, and heat and sun, just to name a
few. The information is easily accessible for downloading from the Web.
Printed copies are available through local OSHA offices in the affected
The site also features links to public service announcements to inform
employees about hazards related to cleanup and recovery. Additionally,
there is a link to 29 individual task- and operation-specific activity
sheets that help employers evaluate hazards and provide guidance on reducing
employee exposures during disaster operations such as floodwater removal,
utility restoration and building assessment, among others.
Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are responsible
for providing a safe and healthy workplace for their employees. OSHA's
role is to promote the safety and health of America's working men and
women by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach
and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual process
improvement in workplace safety and health. For more information, visit www.osha.gov.
OSHA OFFERS SAFETY TIPS FOR WORKING IN SUMMER HEAT
The hot days of summer are here. Throughout the country, thousands of
employees who work outdoors face the potential dangers associated with
overexposure to heat. Factors such as working in direct sunlight, high
temperature and humidity, physical exertion and lack of sufficient water
intake can lead to heat stress.
"During the warm season, it is important to understand that exposure
to heat can cause serious illness or death," said Assistant Secretary
of Labor for OSHA, Edwin G. Foulke, Jr. "We encourage employers
and employees to take advantage of OSHA's many free resources that
offer advice on how to stay healthy while working outside."
Exposure to heat can cause heat cramps and rashes. The most serious
heat-related disorders are heat stroke and heat exhaustion. Symptoms
include confusion; irrational behavior; loss of consciousness; hot,
dry skin; and abnormally high body temperature. Drinking cool water,
reducing physical exertion, wearing appropriate clothing and regular
rest periods in a cool recovery area can lessen the effects of working
in summer heat.
Workers from the Effects of Heat is a fact sheet explaining
heat stress and how it can be prevented. The fact sheet Working
Outdoors in Warm Climates provides recommendations on
how to protect employees from exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV)
and offers information on insect-caused illnesses such as West Nile
Virus and Lyme disease. Employers and employees will find more practical
tips for guarding against UV radiation in Protecting
Yourself in the Sun, a pocket-sized card addressing
skin cancer, describing its varied forms, and suggesting ways to
block UV rays.
These outdoor work-related publications and others are free and can
be downloaded from the Publications
page on OSHA's Web site or ordered from the publications
office at 202-693-1888. More information can be found on the Web sites
of the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are
responsible for providing a safe and healthy workplace for their employees.
OSHA's role is to promote the safety and health of America's working
men and women by setting and enforcing standards; providing training,
outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging
continual process improvement in workplace safety and health. For more
information, visit www.osha.gov.
Bringing Workplace Safety & Health
Home: Lawn Mower Safety Tips
In the workplace it is easy to remember to keep safety as a main priority
when operating heavy machinery. At a worksite there are signs demonstrating
the required personal protective equipment (PPE), signs showing the
pinch points and manuals to ensure safe operation. However, at home
these constant reminders are not around, which makes it increasingly
difficult to remember to keep safety as the top priority.
The most common piece of machinery used at home is the lawn mower. Here
are a few tips to remain safe while operating a lawn mower. Safety for
- Never tamper with safety devices. Check their proper operation
- Do not allow children anywhere near the area of operation.
- Never assume that children will remain where you last saw them.
- The blades on mowers spin very fast and can pick up and throw
debris that could seriously injure a bystander.
- Be sure to clean up the area to be mowed before you start mowing.
- Do not operate a lawnmower with the discharge guard (reflector)
or engine grass catcher installed.
- The mower deck has spinning mower blades that can amputate hands
- Do not allow anyone near the mower while it is running.
- Always allow the mower blade(s) to stop completely before leaving
the mower's operator position.
- Always turn off mower when crossing a sidewalk or a driveway.
- Be sure to completely read the safety information contained in
the operator's manual.
Safety for Riding Mowers
- Do not give children rides on a riding mower, even with the mower
blades not turning.
- Do not mow with a riding mower in reverse unless absolutely
- Using a riding mower on a slope that is too steep or where you
don't have adequate traction can cause you to lose control or roll
- Always consult your operator's manual for safety messages concerning
operation on a slope.
Safety for Walk-Behind Mowers
- Do not put your hands or feet near or under the mower.
- Never tilt a walk-behind mower; always keep all four wheels on
- Do not pull the mower backward unless absolutely necessary. Always
look down and behind before and while mowing backwards.
Safety for Electric Mowers
- Use only recommended, grounded extension cords.
- Mow away from the cord.
- Never abuse the cord or use a frayed cord.
- Always turn off the mower when you leave it, and unplug the cord
from the outlet; never unplug by yanking the cord from the wall.
- Never use an electric mower when it is wet or raining.
For a complete article and list of tips, please visit
Bicycling is one of the most popular ways to get around, whether for
recreation, sport or transportation. An estimated 57 million Americans
ride bikes ranging from high performance, touring bicycles, to mountain
bikes—and dozens of variations in between. With millions
of cyclists on the roads—the same roads occupied by millions
of motor vehicles that are larger, heavier and faster than bikes—the
National Safety Council believes that defensive driving applies to
people who pedal with their feet to travel, as well as to those who
push on the gas pedal. Because about 900 bicyclists were killed and
some 70,000 suffered disabling injuries (1999 statistics), it is clear
that taking precautions in traffic and wearing protective equipment
are a cyclist's best shields against unintentional injuries.
The Council offers the following tips for safe and enjoyable bicycling:
- Obey traffic rules. Get acquainted with ordinances. Cyclists must
follow the same rules as motorists.
- Know your bike's capabilities. Remember that bicycles differ from
motor vehicles; they're smaller and can't move as fast. But, they can
change direction more easily, stop faster and move through smaller
- Ride in single file with traffic, not against it. Bicycling two abreast
can be dangerous. Bicyclists should stay as far right on the pavement
as possible, watching for opening car doors, sewer gratings, soft shoulders,
broken glass and other debris. Remember to keep a safe distance from
the vehicle ahead.
- Make safe turns and cross intersections with care. Signal turns half
a block before the intersection, using the correct hand signals (left
arm straight out for left turn; forearm up for right turn). When traffic
is heavy and the cyclist has to turn left, it is best to dismount and
walk the bicycle across both streets at the crosswalks.
- Never hitch on cars. A sudden stop or turn could send the cyclist
flying into the path of another vehicle.
- Before riding into traffic: stop, look left, right, left again, and
over your shoulder.
- Always be seen. During the day, cyclists should wear bright clothing.
Nighttime cycling is not advised, but if riding at night is necessary,
retroreflective clothing, designed to bounce back motorists' headlight
beams, will make cyclists more visible.
- Make sure the bicycle has the right safety equipment: a red rear
reflector; a white front reflector; a red or colorless spoke reflector
on the rear wheel; an amber or colorless reflector on the front wheel;
pedal reflectors; a horn or bell; and a rear view mirror. A bright
headlight is recommended for night riding.
- Wear a helmet.
Head injuries cause about 85 percent of all bicycling fatalities. The
Council strongly urges all cyclists to wear helmets. The first body
part to fly forward in a collision is usually the head, and with nothing
but skin and bone to protect the brain from injury, the results can
- In March 1999, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
issued a uniform, mandatory federal safety standard for all bike helmets.
All helmets manufactured or imported for sale in the U.S. must carry
a label or sticker stating that they meet the requirements of the new
standard. Cyclists who currently have a helmet that meets the ASTM,
ANSI or Snell standards do not need to rush out to buy a new one; these
helmets provide adequate protection. However, when it's time to replace
a helmet because it has been outgrown or damaged in a crash, buying
a helmet that meets the CPSC standard is recommended. The helmet should
fit securely and should be worn low and near the eyebrows—not
back on the forehead.
A properly designed helmet has four characteristics:
- a stiff outer shell designed to distribute impact forces and protect
against sharp objects;
- an energy-absorbing liner at least one-half inch thick;
- a chin strap and fastener to keep the helmet in place; and,
- it should be lightweight, cool in hot weather and fit comfortably.
There is no limit to the fun and healthful exercise gained from bicycling.
Being careful, always, will give riders safer trips and greater peace
Source: National Safety Council
West Nile Virus
The West Nile Virus is primarily a disease of birds. It is commonly
found in Africa, West Asia, and the Middle East, but has also caused
outbreaks in Europe. In humans, it can cause encephalitis, an infection
of the brain. West Nile Virus is similar to the virus that causes St.
Louis encephalitis, which for years has been found in the United States.
West Nile had not been found in the United States before the late summer
What are the Symptoms of West Nile Virus?
Most people infected by the West Nile Virus have no symptoms at all,
or experience something that feels like flu. Symptoms of "West Nile
fever" may include fever, headache, achy muscles, and extreme tiredness,
perhaps with skin rash and swollen lymph glands. In a fraction of cases,
the fever leads to encephalitis, which is fatal in some cases or may
cause neurologic after-effects. There is no vaccine against West Nile,
and no known "cure." As with other viral diseases, treatment
consists of support until it has run its course. The incubation period "the
time between an infectious bite and the onset of symptoms—is usually
How Do You Get West Nile Virus?
Humans get the West Nile Virus largely from the bite of mosquitoes.
Although some 150 species of mosquitoes are found in the United States,
the primary transmitter of West Nile is Culex pipiens. The female mosquito
catches the virus when it bites an infected bird, and can then pass it
along if it later bites a human. Humans do not get it from other humans
The virus can infect many different species of birds and other
animals, but crows seem particularly vulnerable, and monitoring
programs focus on them. In fact birds were the key to solving
the 1999 outbreak. CDC epidemiologists identified the West Nile
virus and linked it to the human illness after pathologists found
the disease in flamingos, herons, and bald eagles that had been
dying at the Bronx Zoo. The virus has been found also in horses
and a cat.
What You Can Do to Help Fight Mosquitoes?
- Empty standing water in old tires, cemetery urns, buckets, plastic
covers, toys, or any other container where "wrigglers" and "tumblers" live.
- Empty and change the water in bird baths, fountains, wading pools,
rain barrels, and potted plant trays at least once a week if not more
- Drain or fill temporary pools with dirt.
- Keep swimming pools treated and circulating and rain gutters unclogged.
- Use mosquito repellents when necessary and follow label directions
and precautions closely.
- Use head nets, long sleeves and long pants if you venture into areas
with high mosquito populations, such as salt marshes.
- If there is a mosquito-borne disease warning in effect, stay inside
during the evening when mosquitoes are most active.
- Make sure window and door screens are "bug tight."
- Replace your outdoor lights with yellow "bug" lights.
Contact your local mosquito control district or health department. Neighborhoods
are occasionally sprayed to prevent disease and nuisance caused by large
mosquito numbers. If you have any questions about mosquitoes and their
control, call your local authorities.
Product safety recalls for July 2008:
ASSE Suggests Changes to Confined Space Standard: