I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Focus of the Report
Background
The Current Federal Role
Findings and Conclusions

II. INTRODUCTION

The Function of Wetlands
The Nature and Extent of the Losses
The Federal Role
Focus of the Report
Organization of this Volume
References

PART I: FEDERAL PROGRAMS

III. AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS

Commodity Programs
Swampbuster
Sugar Price Supports
Disaster Payments and Crop Insurance
Farm Credit, Low Interest Loans, and Federal Guarantees
Federal Tax Program
Other Agriculture Related Programs
Conservation Programs
References

IV. WATER DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

Army Corps of Engineers
Water Resources Development Act of 1986 and 1990
The Central Valley Improvement Act of 1992
Wetlands Mitigation
Bureau of Reclamation
International Boundary and Water Commission
Soil Conservation Service Small Watershed Projects
Water Conservation Through Vegetation Management
Small-Scale Water Diversions
USDA Water Conservation Programs
Hydroelectric Projects
The Electric Consumers Protection Act
Federal Income Tax Code
References

V. INFRASTRUCTURE, LOCAL DEVELOPMENT, AND HOUSING PROGRAMS

Federal-Aid Highway Program
Federal Aviation Administration Grants
Water-Based Recreational Development Programs
Rural Electrification Administration Loans
Rural Water Systems
Wastewater Treatment Construction Grants
Disaster Relief and National Flood Insurance Programs
Urban Development Action Grants
Community Development Block Grants
Economic Development Administration Programs
Housing Programs
The Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982
Colorado River Floodway Protection Act of 1986
References

VI. FEDERAL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE RESOURCE USE, EXTRACTION, AND DEVELOPMENT

Forest Service and BLM Road Construction, Road Maintenance, and Timber Harvest Activities on Federal Lands
Alaska National Interest Lands Act of 1980 and the Tongass Timber Reform Act of 1990
Forest Service Research, Technical, and Financial Assistance
USDA Forestry Programs
Federal Income Tax Code Provisions Related to Forestry
Timber Product Export Assistance
Bureau of Land Management and Forest Service Grazing Policy
Income Tax Code Provisions Related to the Oil and Gas Industry
Department of Energy Programs Related to Peat Mining
Income Tax Code Provision Related to Peat Mining
Mining Law Governing Placer Mining
References
Appendix VI-1: Information Available to Assist Federal Managers in Determining the Impacts of Programs on Wetlands

PART II: THE COASTAL SOUTH AND THE EVERGLADES

VII. FLORIDA EVERGLADES

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

VIII. COASTAL LOUISIANA

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

IX. GALVESTON BAY OF TEXAS

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

X. PUERTO RICAN COAST

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

PART III: ALASKA AND THE WEST

XI. CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY

Introduction
The Transformation of the Central Valley
Factors Currently Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

XII. WESTERN RIPARIAN WETLANDS

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

XIII. SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Program
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

XIV. WESTERN ALASKA

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

PART IV: THE EAST

XV. DELMARVA PENINSULA

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

XVI. NORTH CAROLINA -- THE POCOSINS AND OTHER FRESHWATER WETLANDS

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

XVII. NORTHEASTERN NEW JERSEY WETLANDS

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

PART V: THE MIDWEST AND THE PLAINS

XVIII. MICHIGAN'S COASTAL AND NORTHERN FORESTED WETLANDS

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Coastal Wetlands
Factors Adversely Affecting Northern Forested Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects in Coastal Michigan
Federal Programs and Projects in Northern, Forested Michigan
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

XIX. THE RAINWATER BASIN OF NEBRASKA

Introduction
Factors Adversely Affecting Wetlands
Federal Programs and Projects
Status and Prospects
Recommendations
References

Return to Impact of Federal Programs on Wetlands Title Page
Return to United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Return to Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance
For more information on the impact of Federal programs on wetlands,
contact Jon H. Goldstein by email at jon_goldstein@ios.doi.gov or
by telephone at 202-208-4077